Time Table of Contents

May 2009




彭中美 馬皓琳 李士通

Jugular Venous Oxygenation During Hypothermic Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Patients at Risk for Abnormal Cerebral Autoregulation: Influence of {alpha}-Stat Versus pH-Stat Blood Gas Management (Brief Report)

Lance R. Hoover, Radhika Dinavahi, Wei-Ping Cheng, John R. Cooper, Jr, Maria Rosa Marino, Tyler C. Spata, Gaile L. Daniels, William K. Vaughn, and Nancy A. Nussmeier

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1389-1393.


懷曉蓉 譯 陳傑 校

Optimal Perfusion During Cardiopulmonary Bypass: An Evidence-Based Approach (Review Article)

Glenn S. Murphy, Eugene A. Hessel, II, and Robert C. Groom

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1394-1417.


單嘉琪譯 薛張綱校

The Feasibility of Measuring Renal Blood Flow Using Transesophageal Echocardiography in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery

Ping-Liang Yang, David T. Wong, Shuang-Bo Dai, Hai-Bo Song, Ling Ye, Jin Liu, and Bin Liu

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1418-1424.



The Effect of Milrinone on Platelet Activation as Determined by TEG® Platelet MappingTM

Mark C. Wesley, Francis X. McGowan, Robert A. Castro, Sheahan Dissanayake, David Zurakowski, and James A. DiNardo

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1425-1429.


朱紫瑜 譯 陳傑 校

The Effects of Platelet Transfusions Evaluated Using Rotational Thromboelastometry (Brief Report)

Per Flisberg, Malin Rundgren, and Martin Engström

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1430-1432.


範羽譯 薛張綱校

Blood Coagulation: Hemostasis and Thrombin Regulation (Review Article)

Kenichi A. Tanaka, Nigel S. Key, and Jerrold H. Levy

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1433-1446


唐亮   馬皓琳 李士通

The Role of Tissue Factor and Factor VIIa in Hemostasis (Review Article)

Nigel Mackman

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1447-1452.


周姝婧 譯 陳傑 校

Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation: Anesthetic Considerations (Review Article)

Frederic T. Billings, IV, Susheel K. Kodali, and Jack S. Shanewise

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1453-1462.



黃劍譯 薛張綱校

Pediatric Laryngeal Dimensions: An Age-Based Analysis

Priti G. Dalal, David Murray, Anna H. Messner, Angela Feng, John McAllister, and David Molter

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1475-1479.


張瑩譯  馬皓琳 李士通校

Dose-Dependent Suppression of the Electrically Elicited Stapedius Reflex by General Anesthetics in Children Undergoing Cochlear Implant Surgery

Mark W. Crawford, Michelle C. White, Evan J. Propst, Christian Zaarour, Sharon Cushing, Carolyne Pehora, Adrian L. James, Karen A. Gordon, and Blake C. Papsin

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1480-1487.


黃丹 譯 陳傑 校

Ultrasound Versus Landmark-Based Technique for Ilioinguinal-Iliohypogastric Nerve Blockade in Children: The Implications on Plasma Levels of Ropivacaine

Marion Weintraud, Märit Lundblad, Stephan C. Kettner, Harald Willschke, Stephan Kapral, Per-Arne Lönnqvist, Karl Koppatz, Klaus Turnheim, Adrian Bsenberg, and Peter Marhofer

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1488-1492.


李瑩譯 薛張綱校

The Effect of Inguinal Compression, Valsalva Maneuver, and Reverse Trendelenburg Position on the Cross-Sectional Area of the Femoral Vein in Children

Jin-Tae Kim, Chun-Soo Park, Hyun Jung Kim, Jung-Man Lee, Hee-Soo Kim, Chong-Sung Kim, and Seong-Deok Kim

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1493-1496.



王宏 譯,馬皓琳 李士通

A Randomized, Double-Blind, Multicenter Trial Comparing Transdermal Scopolamine Plus Ondansetron to Ondansetron Alone for the Prevention of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in the Outpatient Setting

Tong J. Gan, Ashish C. Sinha, Anthony L. Kovac, R. Kevin Jones, Stephen A. Cohen, Jean P. Battikha, Jonathan S. Deutsch, Joseph V. Pergolizzi, Jr, the TDS Study Group, and Peter S. A. Glass

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1498-1504.

使用瑞芬太尼有利於插入Cobra喉周通氣道(Cobra PLA)

潘錢玲 譯 陳傑 校

The Use of Remifentanil to Facilitate the Insertion of the Cobra Perilaryngeal Airway

Woo Jae Jeon, Kyoung Hun Kim, Jung Kook Suh, and Sang Yun Cho

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1505-1509.



姚敏敏譯 薛張綱校

A Combination of Electroencephalogram and Auditory Evoked Potentials Separates Different Levels of Anesthesia in Volunteers

Bettina Horn, Stefanie Pilge, Eberhard F. Kochs, Gudrun Stockmanns, Andreas Hock, and Gerhard Schneider

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1512-1521.


江繼宏   馬皓琳 李士通

Mixed-Effects Modeling of the Influence of Midazolam on Propofol Pharmacokinetics

Jaap Vuyk, Bart Jan Lichtenbelt, Erik Olofsen, Jack W. van Kleef, and Albert Dahan

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1522-1530.


(趙嫣紅 譯 陳傑 校)

Yun Weng, Tienyi Theresa Hsu, Jing Zhao, Stefanie Nishimura, Gerald G. Fuller, and James M. Sonner

Isovaleric, Methylmalonic, and Propionic Acid Decrease Anesthetic EC50 in Tadpoles, Modulate Glycine Receptor Function, and Interact with the Lipid 1,2-Dipalmitoyl-Sn-Glycero-3-Phosphocholine

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1538-1545



俞佳譯 薛張綱校

Improving Alarm Performance in the Medical Intensive Care Unit Using Delays and Clinical Context

Matthias Görges, Boaz A. Markewitz, and Dwayne R. Westenskow

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1546-1552.


周雅春 李士通 馬皓琳

Noninvasive Assessment of Cardiac Index in Healthy Volunteers: A Comparison Between Thoracic Impedance Cardiography and Doppler Echocardiography

Jean-Luc Fellahi, Vincent Caille, Cyril Charron, Pierre-Hervé Deschamps-Berger, and Antoine Vieillard-Baron

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1553-1559.



張燕 陳傑

Levels of Consciousness During Regional Anesthesia and Monitored Anesthesia Care: Patient Expectations and Experiences (Brief Report)

Roy K. Esaki and George A. Mashour

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1560-1563.



Perioperative Dental Considerations for the Anesthesiologist (Review Article)

Jeffrey S. Yasny

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1564-1573.


唐李雋   馬皓琳  李士通

Modern Rapidly Degradable Hydroxyethyl Starches: Current Concepts (Review Article)

Joachim Boldt

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1574-1582.



張磊 譯 陳傑 校

Ventilation Strategies in the Obstructed Airway in a Bench Model Simulating a Nonintubated Respiratory Arrest Patient (Technical Communication)

Holger Herff, Peter Paal, Achim von Goedecke, Thomas Mitterlechner, Christian A. Schmittinger, and Volker Wenzel

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1585-1588.



張釗譯 薛張綱校

Colloid Preload Versus Coload for Spinal Anesthesia for Cesarean Delivery: The Effects on Maternal Cardiac Output

Wendy H. L. Teoh and Alex T. H. Sia

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1592-1598.


黃佳佳譯,馬皓琳 李士通校

Amniotic Fluid Embolism (Review Article)

Richard S. Gist, Irene P. Stafford, Andrew B. Leibowitz, and Yaakov Beilin

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1599-1602.



舒慧剛 譯 陳傑 校

Growth Rates in Pediatric Diagnostic Imaging and Sedation

Ruth E. Wachtel, Franklin Dexter, and Angella J. Dow

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1616-1621.



朱蘭芳譯 薛張綱校

Consensus Statement: First International Workshop on Anesthetics and Alzheimer’s Disease (Special Article)

Dmitri Baranov, Philip E. Bickler, Gregory J. Crosby, Deborah J. Culley, Maryellen F. Eckenhoff, Roderic G. Eckenhoff, Kirk J. Hogan, Vesna Jevtovic-Todorovic, András Palotás, Misha Perouansky, Emmanuel Planel, Jeffrey H. Silverstein, Huafeng Wei, Robert A. Whittington, Zhongcong Xie, and Zhiyi Zuo

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1627-1630.



Phenylephrine Ameliorates Cerebral Cytotoxic Edema and Reduces Cerebral Infarction Volume in a Rat Model of Complete Unilateral Carotid Artery Occlusion with Severe Hypotension

Seiji Ishikawa, Hiroyuki Ito, Kuninori Yokoyama, and Koshi Makita
Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1631-1637.


丁俊雲 譯 陳傑 校

A Comparison of Cervical Spine Motion During Orotracheal Intubation with the Trachlight® or the Flexible Fiberoptic Bronchoscope

Bryan J. Houde, Stephan R. Williams, Alexandre Cadrin-Chênevert, François Guilbert, and Pierre Drolet

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1638-1643.



陳珺珺譯 薛張綱校

Central Poststroke Pain: A Review of Pathophysiology and Treatment

Bishwanath Kumar, Jayantee Kalita, Gyanendra Kumar, and Usha K. Misra

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1645-1657.


葉樂 譯 陳傑 校

Fluoroscopically Guided Cervical Interlaminar Epidural Injections Using the Midline Approach: An Analysis of Epidurography Contrast Patterns (Brief Report)

Kwang Su Kim, Sung Sik Shin, Tae Sam Kim, Chang Young Jeong, Myung Ha Yoon, and Jeong Il Choi

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1658-1661.


陳珺珺譯 薛張綱校

Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome: A Review of Anatomy, Diagnosis and Treatment (Review Article)

Bryan S. Williams and Steven P. Cohen

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1662-1670.


顔濤 譯, 馬皓琳  李士通

The Effect of Amitriptyline on Ectopic Discharge of Primary Afferent Fibers in the L5 Dorsal Root in a Rat Model of Neuropathic Pain

Xin Su, Annie H. Liang, and Mark O. Urban

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1671-1679.


宋翠俠 譯 陳傑 校

The Effect of Peripherally Administered CDP-Choline in an Acute Inflammatory Pain Model: The Role of {alpha}7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor

Mine Sibel Gurun, Renee Parker, James C. Eisenach, and Michelle Vincler

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1680-1687.


陳珺珺譯 薛張綱校

Continuous Interscalene Brachial Plexus Block via an Ultrasound-Guided Posterior Approach: A Randomized, Triple-Masked, Placebo-Controlled Study

Edward R. Mariano, Robert Afra, Vanessa J. Loland, NavParkash S. Sandhu, Richard H. Bellars, Michael L. Bishop, Gloria S. Cheng, Lynna P. Choy, Rosalita C. Maldonado, and Brian M. Ilfeld

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1688-1694.


黃施偉 譯,馬皓琳 李士通

A Prospective Randomized Comparison of Ultrasound and Neurostimulation as Needle End Points for Interscalene Catheter Placement

Michael J. Fredrickson, Craig M. Ball, Adam J. Dalgleish, Alistair W. Stewart, and Tim G. Short

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1695-1700.


張燕 譯 陳傑 校)

A Lateral Percutaneous Technique for Stellate Ganglion Blockade in Rats

Nebahat Gulcu, Ersoz Gonca, and Hasan Kocoglu

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1701-1704.


陳珺珺譯 薛張綱校

Surface Anatomy as a Guide to Vertebral Level for Thoracic Epidural Placement

Desiree A. Teoh, Kristi L. Santosham, Carmen C. Lydell, Dean F. Smith, and Michael T. Beriault

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1705-1707.


慧譯 馬皓琳 李士通校

An Anatomical Study of the Parasacral Block Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Healthy Volunteers

Maeve O'Connor, Margaret Coleman, Fintan Wallis, and Dominic Harmon

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1708-1712.


The Feasibility of Measuring Renal Blood Flow Using Transesophageal Echocardiography in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery

Ping-Liang Yang, David T. Wong, Shuang-Bo Dai, Hai-Bo Song, Ling Ye, Jin Liu, and Bin Liu

From the *Department of Anesthesiology, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, People's Republic of China; {dagger}Department of Anesthesia, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; and {ddagger}Department of Anesthesiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, People's Republic of China.

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1418-1424.






(單嘉琪譯 薛張綱校)

BACKGROUND: There is no reliable method to monitor renal blood flow intraoperatively. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility and reproducibility of left renal blood flow measurements using transesophageal echocardiography during cardiac surgery.

METHODS: In this prospective noninterventional study, left renal blood flow was measured with transesophageal echocardiography during three time points (pre-, intra-, and postcardiopulmonary bypass) in 60 patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Sonograms from 6 subjects were interpreted by 2 blinded independent assessors at the time of acquisition and 6 mo later. Interobserver and intraobserver reproducibility were quantified by calculating variability and intraclass correlation coefficients.

RESULTS: Patients with Doppler angles of >30[degrees] (20 of 60 subjects) were eliminated from renal blood flow measurements. Left renal blood flow was successfully measured and analyzed in 36 of 60 (60%) subjects. Both interobserver and intraobserver variability were <10%. Interobserver and intraobserver reproducibility in left renal blood flow measurements were good to excellent (intraclass correlation coefficients 0.604-0.999). Left renal arterial luminal diameter for the pre, intra, and postcardiopulmonary bypass phases, ranged from 3.8 to 4.1 mm, renal arterial velocity from 25 to 35 cm/s, and left renal blood flow from 192 to 299 mL/min.

CONCLUSION: In patients undergoing cardiac surgery, it was feasible in 60% of the subjects to measure left renal blood flow using intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography. The interobserver and intraobserver reproducibility of renal blood flow measurements was good to excellent.



Blood coagulation: hemostasis and thrombin regulation.

Tanaka KA, Key NS, Levy JH

From the *Division of Cardiothoracic Anesthesia and Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia; and {dagger}Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1433-1446.



(范羽譯 薛張綱校)

Perioperative bleeding is a major challenge particularly because of increasing clinical use of potent antithrombotic drugs. Understanding current concepts of coagulation is important in determining the preoperative bleeding risk of patients, and in managing hemostatic therapy perioperatively. The serine protease thrombin plays pivotal roles in the activation of additional serine protease zymogens (inactive enzymatic precursors), cofactors, and cell-surface receptors. Thrombin generation is closely regulated to locally achieve rapid hemostasis after injury without causing uncontrolled systemic thrombosis. During surgery, there are major disturbances in coagulation and inflammatory systems because of hemorrhage/hemodilution, blood transfusion, and surgical stresses. Postoperative bleeding often requires allogeneic blood transfusions, which support thrombin generation and hemostasis. However, procoagulant activity and inflammation are increased postoperatively; thus, antithrombotic therapy may be required to prevent perioperative thrombotic complications. There have been significant advances in the management of perioperative hemostasis and thrombosis because of the introduction of novel hemostatic and antithrombotic drugs. However, a limitation of current treatment is that conventional clotting tests do not reflect the entire physiological processes of coagulation making optimal pharmacologic therapy difficult. Understanding the in vivo regulatory mechanisms and pharmacologic modulation of thrombin generation may help control bleeding without potentially increasing prothrombotic risks. In this review, we focus on the regulatory mechanisms of hemostasis and thrombin generation using multiple, simplified models of coagulation.



Pediatric laryngeal dimensions: an age-based analysis.

Dalal PG, Murray D, Messner AH, Feng A, McAllister J, Molter D.

From the *Department of Anesthesiology, Penn State Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pennsylvania; {dagger}Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis Children's Hospital, St Louis, Missouri; {ddagger}Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California; ||Kaiser Foundation Hospital, Oakland, California; ¶Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis Children's Hospital, St Louis, Missouri; and #Department of Otolaryngology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis Children's Hospital, St Louis, Missouri.

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1475-1479




結果:在135名接受檢測的兒童中,有7例由於檢測所得圖像質量較差而被剔除。實際參與研究的兒童有128名,其中男孩79名和女孩49名。平均年齡5.9+/-3.3歲,平均身高爲113.5+/-22.2cm,平均體重爲23.5+/-13KgC-CSA平均值爲48.9+/-15.5mm,大於G-CSA的平均值30+/-16.5mm,且在自6月齡開始(P<0.001,r=0.45,power=1)的所有研究物件中,C-CSA值均大於G-CSAC-CSA:G-CSA的平均率爲2.1+/-1.2G-CSAC-CSA的具有正相關性,相對於與年齡(r=0.36,P<0.001;r=0.27,P=0.001),身高(r=0.34,P<0.001;r =0.29,P<0.001)及體重(r=0.35,P<0.001;r=0.25,P=0.003).未觀察到研究資料中在不同性別間存在顯著差異。


(黃劍譯 薛張綱校)

BACKGROUND: In children, the cricoid is considered the narrowest portion of the "funnel-shaped" airway. Growth and development lead to a transition to the more cylindrical adult airway. A number of airway decisions in pediatric airway practice are based on this transition from the pediatric to the adult airway. Our primary aim in this study was to measure airway dimensions in children of various ages. The measures of the glottis and cricoid regions were used to determine whether a transition from the funnel-shaped pediatric airway to the cylindrical adult airway could be identified based on images obtained from video bronchoscopy.

METHODS: One hundred thirty-five children (ASA physical status 1 or 2) aged 6 mo to 13 yr were enrolled for measurement of laryngeal dimensions, including cross-sectional area (G-CSA), anteroposterior and transverse diameters at the level of the glottis and the cricoid (C-CSA), using the video bronchoscopic technique under general anesthesia.

RESULTS: Of the 135 children enrolled in the study, seven patients were excluded from the analysis mainly because of poor image quality. Of the 128 children studied (79 boys and 49 girls), mean values (+/-standard deviation) for the demographic data were age 5.9 (+/-3.3) yr, height 113.5 (+/-22.2) cm and weight 23.5 (+/-13) kg. Overall, the mean C-CSA was larger than the G-CSA (48.9 +/- 15.5 mm(2) vs 30 +/- 16.5 mm(2), respectively). This relationship was maintained throughout the study population starting from 6 mo of age (P < 0.001, r = 0.45, power = 1). The mean ratio for C-CSA: G-CSA was 2.1 +/- 1.2. There was a positive correlation between G- and the C-CSA versus age (r = 0.36, P < 0.001; r = 0.27, P = 0.001, respectively), height (r = 0.34, P < 0.001; r = 0.29, P < 0.001, respectively), and weight (r = 0.35, P < 0.001; r = 0.25, P = 0.003, respectively). No significant gender differences in the mean values of the studied variables were observed.

CONCLUSION: In this study of infants and children, the glottis rather than cricoid was the narrowest portion of the pediatric airway. Similar to adults, the pediatric airway is more cylindrical than funnel shaped based on these video bronchoscopic images. Further studies are needed to determine whether these static airway measurements in anesthetized and paralyzed children reflect the dynamic characteristics of the glottis and cricoid in children.




The effect of inguinal compression, Valsalva maneuver, and reverse Trendelenburg position on the cross-sectional area of the femoral vein in children.

Jin-Tae Kim, Chun-Soo Park, Hyun Jung Kim, Jung-Man Lee, Hee-Soo Kim, Chong-Sung Kim, and Seong-Deok Kim

From the Departments of *Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, and {dagger}Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1493-1496.


背景: 對於簡易化股靜脈插管術,更大橫斷面積(CSA)的靜脈是有利的,並且可以通過腹股溝壓迫、瓦耳薩耳瓦氏手法或者反向特倫德倫伯臥位來獲得。在本研究中,我們通過超生波檢查評估了這些方法在兒童中應用的效果。


結果: 腹股溝壓迫在小組L增加了股靜脈40%的橫截面積,而在小組S增加了57% (P < 0.001)。腹股溝壓迫加特倫德倫伯臥位在小組L也增加了43%的橫截面,在小組S則增加了73%(P < 0.001) 瓦耳薩耳瓦氏手法對於股靜脈橫截面積的增加在小組S中比小組L更有效。特倫德倫伯臥位或者反向特倫德倫伯臥位對於股靜脈橫截面積的改變都不具有臨床意義。

結論 腹股溝壓迫可有效地增加股靜脈的橫截面積,並且在特倫德倫伯臥位時它的作用也是顯著的。瓦耳薩耳瓦氏手法對2歲以下兒童更有效。而重心位置改變對兒童股靜脈橫截面的改變影響很小。

(李瑩譯 薛張綱校)

BACKGROUNDS: For facilitation of femoral venous cannulation, the larger cross-sectional area (CSA) of the vein is helpful and can be achieved by inguinal compression, Valsalva maneuver, or the reverse Trendelenburg position. In this study, we evaluated these methods using ultrasonography in children.

METHODS: Ultrasound was used to measure the CSA of the common femoral vein of 50 anesthetized pediatric patients (Group L: 25 patients more than 2 yr, Group S: 25 patients younger than 2 yr). The following six measurements of the CSA of the femoral vein were made: 1) in the supine position (control), 2) with digital compression above the inguinal ligament, 3) in the Trendelenburg position 15 degrees , 4) in the Trendelenburg position 15 degrees plus inguinal compression, 5) with Valsalva maneuver, and 6) in the reverse Trendelenburg position 15 degrees . We defined 20% change of the CSA as clinically significant.

RESULTS: Inguinal compression increased the CSA of the femoral vein by 40% in Group L and by 57% in Group S (each P < 0.001). Inguinal compression during the Trendelenburg position also increased the CSA by 43% in Group L and by 73% in Group S (each P < 0.001). Valsalva maneuver for increasing the CSA of the femoral vein was more effective in Group S (increased by 35%) than in Group L (by 19%). The changes in the CSA were not clinically significant during the Trendelenburg position or the reverse Trendelenburg position.

CONCLUSIONS: Inguinal compression effectively increases the CSA of the femoral vein and its effect is also prominent in the Trendelenburg position. Valsalva maneuver is more effective in small children. Gravitational position changes have little effect on the size of the femoral vein in children.




A Combination of Electroencephalogram and Auditory Evoked Potentials Separates Different Levels of Anesthesia in Volunteers

Bettina Horn, MD*, Stefanie Pilge, MD*, Eberhard F. Kochs, MD*, Gudrun Stockmanns, PhD{dagger}, Andreas Hock, MSc*, and Gerhard Schneider, MD*

From the *Department of Anesthesiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich; and {dagger}Institute of Information Logistics, Department of Computer Science and Applied Cognitive Science, University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany.

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1512-1521.






(姚敏敏譯 薛張綱校)

BACKGROUND: It has been shown that the combination of electroencephalogram (EEG) and auditory evoked potentials (AEP) allows a good separation of consciousness from unconsciousness. In the present study, we sought a combined EEG/AEP indicator that allows both separation of consciousness from unconsciousness and discrimination among different levels of sedation and hypnosis over a wider range of anesthesia.

METHODS: Fifteen unpremedicated volunteers received mono-anesthesia with sevoflurane or propofol in a randomized crossover design in two consecutive sessions. Loss of consciousness (LOC) and EEG burst suppression (BSP) defined end-points from the upper and lower range of general anesthesia. In addition to those two extremes, the difference between anesthetic concentration at BSP and LOC was divided into three equal intervals, resulting in two intermediate levels which divided the concentration from LOC (minimum) to BSP (maximum) into three equal steps. This data set was used to test whether a previously described combined EEG/AEP indicator "detector of consciousness" can also discriminate among degrees of anesthetic effects from the awake state to BSP. Furthermore, a new improved combined EEG/AEP indicator was developed on the basis of the data from the current study, and subsequently this new indicator was tested for its ability to separate consciousness from unconsciousness with the patient data set.

RESULTS: The former "detector of consciousness" showed a prediction probability (PK) of 0.77 to separate different levels of anesthesia from the current study, whereas for the new combined EEG/AEP indicator, PK was 0.94. The new indicator was further applied to the previous study and achieved a PK of 0.89.

CONCLUSIONS: These results show that with the new indicator presented here, a combination of EEG and AEP parameters can be used to differentiate degrees of anesthetic effects over a wide range of hypnosis, from the conscious state to deep anesthesia (i.e., BSP).




Improving Alarm Performance in the Medical Intensive Care Unit Using Delays and Clinical Context

Matthias Görges, MS, Boaz A. Markewitz, MD, and Dwayne R. Westenskow, PhD

From the Department of Anesthesiology, University of Utah; and {dagger}Division of Respiratory, Critical Care, and Occupational Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1546-1552.






(俞佳譯 薛張綱校)

INTRODUCTION: In an intensive care unit, alarms are used to call attention to a patient, to alert a change in the patient's physiology, or to warn of a failure in a medical device; however, up to 94% of the alarms are false. Our purpose in this study was to identify a means of reducing the number of false alarms.

METHODS: An observer recorded time-stamped information of alarms and the presence of health care team members in the patient room; each alarm response was classified as effective (action taken within 5 min), ineffective (no response to the alarm), and ignored (alarm consciously ignored or actively silenced).

RESULTS: During the 200-h study period, 1271 separate entries by an individual to the room being observed were recorded, 1214 alarms occurred and 2344 tasks were performed. On average, alarms occurred 6.07 times per hour and were active for 3.28 min per hour; 23% were effective, 36% were ineffective, and 41% were ignored. The median alarm duration was 17 s. A 14-s delay before alarm presentation would remove 50% of the ignored and ineffective alarms, and a 19-s delay would remove 67%. Suctioning, washing, repositioning, and oral care caused 152 ignored or ineffective ventilator alarms.

DISCUSSION: Introducing a 19-s alarm delay and automatically detecting suctioning, repositioning, oral care, and washing could reduce the number of ineffective and ignored alarms from 934 to 274. More reliable alarms could elicit more timely response, reduce workload, reduce noise pollution, and potentially improve patient safety.




Perioperative Dental Considerations for the Anesthesiologist

Jeffrey S. Yasny

From the Department of Anesthesiology, The Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York.

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1564-1573.




Although anesthesiologists consistently work in the mouth of patients, they may not have been exposed to a comprehensive education of teeth, surrounding tissues, and intraoral prostheses. Since perioperative dental damage is one of the most common anesthesia-related adverse events and is responsible for the greatest number of malpractice claims against anesthesiologists, several dental considerations are warranted. The likelihood of perioperative dental trauma increases with the vulnerability of a patient's dentition and the presence of associated anesthesia risk factors. Minimizing dental injuries begins with the anesthesiologist's preoperative assessment of the patient's dentition and intraoral tissues. Clear documentation of the patient's preoperative dental condition and notifying the patient of the potential dental damage will diminish costs for any related postoperative dental treatment. Upon discovery of a potentially hazardous dental condition, a consultation with a dentist should be considered before proceeding with the surgical procedure. Exercising cautionary measures during provocative events, such as laryngoscopy and tracheal extubation, can aid in the prevention of dental trauma. In the event of such an injury, several management tactics can promote a swift and reasonable resolution. Establishing an increased awareness of intraoral conditions and the related perioperative risk factors may diminish the incidence of dental damage and financial costs.




Colloid preload versus coload for spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery: the effects on maternal cardiac output.

Teoh WH, Sia AT.

Department of Women's Anesthesia, KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Singapore.

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1592-1598.


背景:脊麻對於剖宮産病人可引發嚴重的母體低血壓,心輸出量(CO)減少和胎盤血流量降低。由於快速的組織再分佈,預先輸入晶體液對脊麻的副作用無效。在脊麻過程回抽到腦脊液的同時給予晶膠混合擴容可能有更好的效果。這裏所說的無效假設是:給予脊麻剖宮産婦膠體擴容(15 mL/kg羥乙基澱粉(賀斯)130/0.4 [Voluven 6%])和同等量的晶膠混合擴容對於母體心排量和低血壓的發生率無區別。其次研究分娩後新生兒體內酸堿平衡及分娩前血管升壓藥的需要量。

方法:募集40ASA評分I II的擇期剖宮産婦,隨機分配到P組(給予15 mL/kg 賀斯擴容)或C組(在確認回抽到腦脊液時給予晶膠混合擴容)。使用USCOM超聲心排量監測儀記錄患者心率、動脈血壓、每搏輸出量、和心排血量基線,每分鐘記錄一次連續10分鐘,後每2.5分鐘記錄一次連續10分鐘。脊麻需右側臥位於腰3/4椎間隙實施。彈丸式注射新福林維持動脈血壓在基線的90%-100%

結果:人口學特徵、麻醉劑以及外科特點相似。基線收縮壓、心率和膠體容量無組間差異。脊麻後5分鐘內P組病人的心排量和每搏輸出量顯著增加(P = 0.01) ,但心排量的增加維持不到10分鐘。而低血壓的發生率、絕對動脈血壓值(P = 0.73)、分娩前新福林需要量(P組需要量中位元值300毫克(01000mg),C組中位值150毫克(0850mg),P = 0.24),新生兒出生後的Apgar評分以及臍動脈和臍靜脈的血氣分析均無顯著差異。

結論:靜脈使用15 mL/kg賀斯130/0.4擴容增加前負荷相對於晶膠混合使用可使脊麻剖宮産病人的心排量在麻醉後5分鐘內有顯著增加,然而,對於母體和新生兒的影響無差異。

(張釗譯 薛張綱校)

BACKGROUND: Spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery may cause severe maternal hypotension, and a decrease in cardiac output (CO) and blood flow to the placenta. Fluid preloading with crystalloid is ineffective due to rapid redistribution. A "coload" given at the time of cerebrospinal fluid identification may be more effective. Our null hypothesis was that there would be no difference between the effect of a colloid preload (15 mL/kg hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 [Voluven 6%]) and an identical coload on maternal CO and the incidence of hypotension after spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery. Secondary outcomes studied were neonatal acid- base status and predelivery vasopressor requirements.

METHODS: Forty ASA PS I and II women scheduled for elective cesarean delivery were recruited. Patients were randomized to Group P (preload of 15 mL/kg HES) or Group C (coload, given when cerebrospinal fluid identified). Heart rate, arterial blood pressure, stroke volume and CO measurements were recorded at baseline, every minute for 10 min, and every 2.5 min interval for 10 min with the USCOM ultrasonic CO monitor. Spinal anesthesia was performed at the L3/4 interspace in the right lateral position. Arterial blood pressure was maintained at 90%-100% of baseline values using IV phenylephrine boluses.

RESULTS: Demographic, anesthetic, and surgical characteristics were similar. There were no between-group differences in baseline systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and colloid volume. CO and stroke volume were significantly increased in Group P (P = 0.01) in the 5 min after spinal anesthesia. This increase in CO was not sustained at 10 min. There were no significant between-group differences in the incidence of hypotension, absolute arterial blood pressure values (P = 0.73), predelivery median (range) phenylephrine requirements (300[0-1000] in Group P versus 150 [0-850]microg in Group C, P = 0.24), or neonatal outcome as measured by Apgar scores and umbilical arterial and venous blood gas values.

CONCLUSION: Intravascular volume expansion with 15 mL/kg HES 130/0.4 given as a preload, but not coload, significantly increased maternal CO for the first 5 min after spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery, however, maternal and neonatal outcomes were not different.




Consensus Statement: First International Workshop on Anesthetics and Alzheimer’s Disease 
Dmitri Baranov, Philip E. Bickler, Gregory J. Crosby, Deborah J. Culley, Maryellen F. Eckenhoff, Roderic G. Eckenhoff, Kirk J. Hogan, Vesna Jevtovic-Todorovic, András Palotás, Misha Perouansky, Emmanuel Planel, Jeffrey H. Silverstein, Huafeng Wei, Robert A. Whittington, Zhongcong Xie, and Zhiyi Zuo

From the *Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; {dagger}Department of Anesthesia, University of California San Francisco Medical Center, San Francisco, California; {ddagger}Department of Anesthesiology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; §Department of Anesthesiology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin; ||Department of Anesthesiology, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia; ¶Asklepios-Med Bt, Szeged, Hungary; #Department of Pathology, Taub Institute for Alzheimer’s Disease Research, Columbia University Medical Center; **Department of Anesthesiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine of New York University; {dagger}{dagger}Department of Anesthesiology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York City, New York; and {ddagger}{ddagger}Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1627-1630.



(朱蘭芳譯 薛張綱校)

In order to review the current status of the potential relationship between anesthesia and Alzheimer’s disease, a group of scientists recently met in Philadelphia for a full day of presentations and discussions. This special article represents a consensus view on the possible link between Alzheimer’s disease and anesthesia and the steps required to test this more definitively.




Central Poststroke Pain: A Review of Pathophysiology and Treatment

Bishwanath Kumar, MD, Jayantee Kalita, DM, Gyanendra Kumar, MD, and Usha K. Misra, DM

From the Department of Neurology Sanjay Gandhi PGIMS, Lucknow, India.

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1645-1657




方法:我們使用Medline,輸入關鍵字" central post-stroke pain," "post-stroke pain," "CPSP and basic studies," "CPSP and clinical features," "CPSP and pharmacological treatment," "CPSP and nonpharmacological treatment" "CPSP and treatment guideline." 文章分成幾類:臨床表現、病理生理和治療,然後系統地復習。



(陳珺珺譯 薛張綱校)

BACKGROUND: Central poststroke pain (CPSP) is a disabling morbidity occurring in 8%–14% of patients with stroke. It is infrequently recognized and difficult to manage.

OBJECTIVE: We systematically reviewed the pathophysiology and treatment of CPSP.

METHODS: We conducted a Medline search using the key words "central post-stroke pain," "post-stroke pain," "CPSP and basic studies," "CPSP and clinical features," "CPSP and pharmacological treatment," "CPSP and nonpharmacological treatment" and "CPSP and treatment guideline." The articles related to CPSP were categorized into clinical features, pathophysiology and treatment, and then systematically reviewed.

RESULTS: Stroke along the spinothal amocortical pathway may result in CPSP after a variable period, usually after 1–2 mo. CPSP may be spontaneous or evoked, variable in intensity and quality. It tends to improve with time. CPSP is associated with mild motor symptoms with relative sparing of joint position and vibration sensations. The pathophysiology of CPSP is not well understood, but central disinhibition, imbalance of stimuli and central sensitization have been suggested. There are few class I and class II studies regarding its management. Amitriptyline and lamotrigine (class IIB) are recommended as first-line and  mexiletine, fluvoxamine and gabapentin as second-line drugs. In pharmacoresistant patients, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and deep brain stimulation have been beneficial.

CONCLUSIONS: CPSP patients present with diverse sensory symptoms and its pathophysiology is still poorly understood. Amitriptyline and lamotrigine are effective treatments. Further studies are needed to understand the pathophysiology and investigate newer therapeutic modalities.


Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome: A Review of Anatomy, Diagnosis and Treatment

Bryan S. Williams, MD, MPH*, and Steven P. Cohen, MD{dagger}{ddagger}

From the *Division of Pain Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois; {dagger}Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, and {ddagger}Walter Reed, Army Medical Center, Washington, DC.

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1662-1670




(陳珺珺譯 薛張綱校)

Greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS) is a term used to describe chronic pain overlying the lateral aspect of the hip. This regional pain syndrome, once described as trochanteric bursitis, often mimics pain generated from other sources, including, but not limited to myofascial pain, degenerative joint disease, and spinal pathology. The incidence of greater trochanteric pain is reported to be approximately 1.8 patients per 1000 per year with the prevalence being higher in women, and patients with coexisting low back pain, osteoarthritis, iliotibial band tenderness, and obesity.

Symptoms of GTPS consist of persistent pain in the lateral hip radiating along the lateral aspect of the thigh to the knee and occasionally below the knee and/or buttock. Physical examination reveals point tenderness in the posterolateral area of the greater trochanter. Most cases of GTPS are self-limited with conservative  measures, such as physical therapy, weight loss, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and behavior modification, providing resolution of symptoms. Other treatment modalities include bursa or lateral hip injections performed with corticosteroid and local anesthetic. More invasive surgical interventions have anecdotally been reported to provide pain relief when conservative treatment modalities fail.


Continuous Inter scalene Brachial Plexus Block via an Ultrasound-Guided Posterior Approach: A Randomized, Triple-Masked, Placebo-Controlled Study

Edward R. Mariano, MD, MAS*, Robert Afra, MD{dagger}, Vanessa J. Loland, MD*, NavParkash S. Sandhu, MD*, Richard H. Bellars, MD*, Michael L. Bishop, MD*, Gloria S. Cheng, MD*, Lynna P. Choy, MD*, Rosalita C. Maldonado, BS*, and Brian M. Ilfeld, MD, MS*

From the Departments of *Anesthesiology, and {dagger}Orthopedic Surgery, University of California, San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, California.

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1688-1694




結果:試驗者共有32名受試者,記錄了30根周圍神經導管。相比于給予初始劑量的羅呱卡因後持續給予生理鹽水組,持續輸注羅呱卡因在POD1可以提供很好的鎮痛效果(n=15)(疼痛分數分別是0.0 [0.0–5.0] versus 3.0 [0.0–6.0], P < 0.001)。在POD1POD2,比較口服阿片類藥物的消耗量,羅呱卡因組低於對照組。接受羅呱卡因的受試者較少有睡眠障礙,與生理鹽水組相比對於鎮痛的滿意度較高。


(陳珺珺譯 薛張綱校)

BACKGROUND: The posterior approach for placing continuous interscalene  catheters has not been studied in a controlled investigation. In this randomized, triple-masked, placebo-controlled study, we tested the hypothesis that an ultrasound-guided continuous posterior interscalene block provides superior postoperative analgesia compared to a single-injection ropivacaine interscalene block after moderately painful shoulder surgery.

METHODS: Preoperatively, subjects received a stimulating interscalene catheter using an ultrasound-guided, in-plane posterior approach. All subjects received an initial bolus of ropivacaine. Postoperatively, subjects were discharged with oral analgesics and a portable infusion device containing either ropivacaine 0.2% or normal saline programmed to deliver a perineural infusion over 2 days. The primary outcome was average pain on postoperative day (POD) 1 (scale: 0–10). Secondary outcomes included least and worst pain scores, oral opioid requirements, sleep disturbances, patient satisfaction, and incidence of complications.

RESULTS: Of the 32 subjects enrolled, 30 perineural catheters were placed per protocol. Continuous ropivacaine perineural infusion (n = 15) produced a statistically and clinically significant reduction in average pain (median [10th–90th percentile]) on POD 1 compared with saline infusion (n = 15) after initial ropivacaine bolus (0.0 [0.0–5.0] versus 3.0 [0.0–6.0], respectively; P < 0.001). Median oral opioid consumption (oxycodone) was lower in the ropivacaine group than in the placebo group on POD 1 (P = 0.002) and POD 2 (P = 0.002). Subjects who received a ropivacaine infusion suffered fewer sleep disturbances than those in the placebo group (P = 0.005 on POD 0 and 1 nights) and rated their satisfaction with analgesia higher than subjects who received normal saline (P < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: Compared to a single-injection interscalene block, a 2-day continuous posterior interscalene block provides greater pain relief, minimizes supplemental opioid requirements, greatly improves sleep quality, and increases patient satisfaction after moderate-to-severe painful outpatient shoulder surgery




Surface Anatomy as a Guide to Vertebral Level for Thoracic Epidural Placement

Desiree A. Teoh, FRPC, MD*, Kristi L. Santosham, MD*, Carmen C. Lydell, MD{dagger}, Dean F. Smith, FRCPC, MD{dagger}, and Michael T. Beriault, FRCPC, MD*

From the Departments of *Anesthesia, and {dagger}Diagnostic Imaging, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1705-1707.




結果:病人的一般情況是相似的。第七頸椎橫突作爲確定T7的骨性標誌,它的準確性是29%,而通過肩胛骨確定的準確性是10%P < 0.001)。如果確定的是T7  ± 1水平,它的準確性分別是78%42%(P = 5.84 x 10–8)。越向尾部,出錯的可能越大(比如確定T8 T9)。C7作爲標誌在BMI<25的病人準確性較高(P = 6.51 x 10–5)。在那些BMI ≥25的病人,兩種標誌的準確性都不是很高 (P = 0.312)


(陳珺珺譯 薛張綱校)

BACKGROUND: Precise placement of thoracic epidural catheters is required to optimize postoperative analgesia and minimize adverse effects. Previous research demonstrated that anesthesiologists are inaccurate when using surface anatomy to locate vertebral levels. In this study, we compared the accuracy of two different landmarks to identify the seventh thoracic (T7) spinous process.

METHODS: Two-hundred-ten patients referred for chest radiography were randomized to two groups. With patients in the anatomic (upright) position, one investigator identified and placed a radioopaque marker over the presumed T7 spinous process using either the vertebra prominens (C7) or the inferior scapular tip as a surface landmark. A radiologist, blinded to the identification technique, reported the spinous process corresponding to the radioopaque label. Marker positions were then compared using the Fisher's exact test. The influence of patient characteristics (age, gender, Body Mass Index [BMI], and height and weight) on accuracy was also examined.

RESULTS: Patient characteristics were similar between groups. The T7 spinous process was identified correctly 29% of the time with the C7 landmark and 10% of the time with the scapular landmark (P < 0.001). Accuracy improved for T7 ± 1 level to 78% and 42%, respectively (P = 5.84 x 10–8). Errors were more common in the caudal direction (i.e., T8 or T9 identified). The C7 landmark was more accurate among those with a BMI <25 (P = 6.51 x 10–5). In those with a BMI ≥25, both landmarking methods were frequently inaccurate (P = 0.312).

CONCLUSIONS: For patients with a BMI <25, the T7 spinous process can be reliably identified to within one interspace in 78% of patients using the C7 (vertebra prominens) surface landmark. Neither the vertebra prominens nor the tip of scapula is a reliable landmark to identify T7 in patients with a BMI ≥25.


Jugular Venous Oxygenation During Hypothermic Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Patients at Risk for Abnormal Cerebral Autoregulation: Influence of {alpha}-Stat Versus pH-Stat Blood Gas Management

Lance R. Hoover, MD*, Radhika Dinavahi, MD{dagger}, Wei-Ping Cheng, MD{ddagger}, John R. Cooper, Jr, MD{dagger}§, Maria Rosa Marino, MD||, Tyler C. Spata, BA{dagger}, Gaile L. Daniels, EMT{dagger}, William K. Vaughn, PhD, and Nancy A. Nussmeier, MD#

From the *Department of Cardiothoracic Anesthesia, San Antonio Uniform Health Education Consortium, San Antonio, Texas; {dagger}Division of Cardiovascular Anesthesiology, the Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke’s Episcopal Hospital, Houston, Texas; {ddagger}Department of Anesthesiology, The Cardiovascular Institute and Fu Wai Hospital at the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing; §Department of Anesthesiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas; ||Department of Cardiovascular Anaesthesia, Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS, Milano, Italy; ¶Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, the Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke’s Episcopal Hospital, Houston, Texas; and #Department of Anesthesiology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York.

Anesth Analg 2009; 108:1389-1393

在一項對有腦血流自身調節受損風險的心臟手術病人的前瞻性、隨機研究中,我們比較了{alpha}-固定計和pH-固定計下血氣處理。選擇40例年齡〉70歲、糖尿病、以前有中風史或未控制的高血壓病人。在低溫和複溫早期,{alpha}-固定計病人(n = 12)的頸靜脈氧分壓明顯低於pH-固定計病人(n = 19; P < 0.05)。在複溫期間,頸靜脈去飽和( SjvO2 <50%){alpha}-固定計病人中的發生率6/12,而pH-固定計病人沒有發生(P = 0.0006)。如果在心肺旁路期間用pH-固定計血氣處理,有腦自身調節功能較差風險的病人可有較高的氧分壓和氧飽和度。

(彭中美 馬皓琳 李士通 校)

In a prospective, randomized study of cardiac surgical patients at risk for impaired cerebral blood flow autoregulation, we compared {alpha}-stat and pH-stat blood gas management. The 40 patients enrolled had age >70 yr, diabetes, prior stroke, or uncontrolled hypertension. During hypothermia and early rewarming, jugular oxygen tensions were significantly lower in {alpha}-stat patients (n = 12) than pH-stat patients (n = 19; P < 0.05). During rewarming, jugular venous desaturation (i.e., SjvO2 <50%) occurred in 6 of 12 {alpha}-stat patients, but no pH-stat patients (P = 0.0006). Patients at risk for poor cerebral autoregulation have higher oxygen tensions and saturations if pH-stat blood gas management is used during cardiopulmonary bypass.



The Effect of Milrinone on Platelet Activation as Determined by TEG® Platelet MappingTM


Mark C. Wesley, MD*, Francis X. McGowan, MD*, Robert A. Castro, MT*, Sheahan Dissanayake, MT*, David Zurakowski, PhD{dagger}, and James A. DiNardo, MD*

From the Departments of *Anesthesia, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, and {dagger}Orthopaedic Surgery and Biostatistics, Children’s Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Anesth Analg 2009; 108:1425-1429


方法:15位無抗血小板用藥史的健康成人身上抽取血樣。加入米力農到全血中達到三個臨床相關的濃度(30100300 ng/mL)。在無米力農及以上三個濃度的全血中實施傳統的凝血彈力描記法(TEG®)TEG血小板測繪法。

結果:米力農血濃度的增加伴隨著對ADPAA誘導的血小板活化的抑制作用增大(P < 0.0001)。當米力農濃度達到300 ng/mL時,可明顯破壞對ADPAA的血小板活化反應。




BACKGROUND: Milrinone is a phosphodiesterase III inhibitor that increases intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate resulting in improved ventricular function and vasodilation. Increased intracellular levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate also inhibit adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and arachidonic acid (AA)-induced platelet aggregation. We hypothesized that inhibition of ADP and AA-induced platelet activation by therapeutic blood concentrations of milrinone could be quantified using TEG® Platelet MappingTM.

METHODS: Blood was taken from 15 healthy adults who had not been taking antiplatelet medications. Milrinone was added to whole blood in three clinically relevant concentrations (30, 100, and 300 ng/mL). Conventional thromboelastography (TEG®) and TEG Platelet Mapping were performed on whole blood without milrinone and at each of these three concentrations.

RESULTS: Increased blood concentrations of milrinone were associated with increased inhibition of ADP and AA-induced platelet activation (P < 0.0001). Milrinone at a blood concentration of 300 ng/mL markedly impaired the platelet activation response to ADP and AA.

CONCLUSIONS: Therapeutic blood concentrations of milrinone exhibit a significant inhibitory effect on ADP and AA-induced platelet activation as determined by TEG Platelet Mapping, without affecting the conventional kaolin-activated TEG.

We suggest that TEG Platelet Mapping results be interpreted with caution in patients being treated with milrinone, and other drugs that modify platelet cyclic nucleotide concentrations.



The Role of Tissue Factor and Factor VIIa in Hemostasis

Nigel Mackman, PhD

From the Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Anesth Analg 2009; 108:1447-1452

組織因數(TF)VII/VIIa 因數(FVII/VIIa)的一個跨膜受體。它在血管周圍的細胞構成性表達。內皮將這個強效的“啟動劑”與迴圈中的配體FVII/FVIIa完全分隔開來,防止不適當的啟動凝血途徑。內皮屏障的破壞導致血管外TF的暴露和迅速啟動凝血途徑。TF還在其他的一些組織中表達,如心臟和大腦,且能提供這些組織更多的凝血功能的保障。少量的TF還以微粒的形式存在於血液中,這些微粒是從活化的和凋亡的細胞出來的小膜囊。微粒TF的濃度在許多疾病中會增加,如敗血症和癌症,且這種所謂的“血源傳染性”TF可能促成這些疾病伴隨的血栓形成。已開發出了重組FVIIa作爲有抑制性抗體的血友病患者的一個有效止血藥物。此外,它可用於對於常規治療沒有反應的出血患者。然而,重組FVIIa恢復止血的機制尚未清楚地確定。總之,TF:FVIIa複合物對於止血是非常必要的,重組FVIIa是一個非常有效的止血藥物。

(唐亮   馬皓琳 李士通 校)      

Tissue factor (TF) is a transmembrane receptor for Factor VII/VIIa (FVII/VIIa). It is constitutively expressed by cells surrounding blood vessels. The endothelium physically separates this potent "activator" from its circulating ligand FVII/FVIIa and prevents inappropriate activation of the clotting cascade. Breakage of the endothelial barrier leads to exposure of extravascular TF and rapid activation of the clotting cascade. TF is also expressed in certain tissues, such as the heart and brain, and provides additional hemostatic protection to these tissues. Small amounts of TF are also present in blood in the form of microparticles, which are small membrane vesicles derived from activated and apoptotic cells. Levels of microparticle TF increase in a variety of diseases, such as sepsis and cancer, and this so-called "blood-borne" TF may contribute to thrombosis associated with these diseases. Recombinant FVIIa has been developed as an effective hemostatic drug for the treatment of hemophilia patients with inhibitory antibodies. In addition, it is used for patients with bleeding that do not respond to conventional therapy. However, the mechanism by which recombinant FVIIa restores hemostasis has not been clearly defined. In conclusion, the TF:FVIIa complex is essential for hemostasis and recombinant FVIIa is an effective hemostatic drug.


Dose-Dependent Suppression of the Electrically Elicited Stapedius Reflex by General Anesthetics in Children Undergoing Cochlear Implant Surgery

Mark W. Crawford, MBBS, FRCPC*, Michelle C. White, MBChB, DCH, FRCA*, Evan J. Propst, MSc, MD{dagger}, Christian Zaarour, MD*, Sharon Cushing, MD{dagger}, Carolyne Pehora, RN, MN*, Adrian L. James, DM, FRCS{dagger}, Karen A. Gordon, PhD{dagger}, and Blake C. Papsin, MD, FRCSC{dagger}

From the Departments of *Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, and {dagger}Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Anesth Analg 2009; 108:1480-1487

背景: 耳蝸植入物可以刺激聽神經産生聽覺。確定刺激合適的上下限是耳蝸植入手術成功所必須的。術中激發鐙骨肌反射的閾值(ESRT)和激發複合動作電位(ECAP)常用於確定植入物刺激的極限。在本研究中,我們評估了七氟烷、地氟烷、異氟烷和丙泊酚對術中 ESRTECAP的劑量相關作用。

方法: 44 名行耳蝸植入手術患兒,年齡6個月至17歲,隨機分組接受七氟烷、地氟烷、異氟烷或丙泊酚麻醉。由一位不知分組的研究者在呼氣末麻醉藥濃度爲經年齡校正、隨機順序的00.751.5倍最低肺泡有效濃度,或丙泊酚的血液靶濃度爲01.53.0 µg/mL時的激發反應。使用單因素重復測量方差分析資料,P < 0.05爲差異有統計學意義。

結果:ESRT呈濃度依賴地隨揮發性麻醉藥濃度的升高而升高(P < 0.01)。有超過半數的患兒吸入揮發性麻醉藥後鐙骨肌反射消失。丙泊酚對ESRT影響最小。與ESRT相反,ECAP不受麻醉的影響。


(張瑩譯  馬皓琳 李士通校)

 BACKGROUND: Cochlear implants stimulate the auditory nerve to enable hearing. Determining appropriate upper and lower limits of stimulation is essential for successful cochlear implantation. The intraoperative evoked stapedius reflex threshold (ESRT) and evoked compound action potential (ECAP) are commonly used to determine the limits of implant stimulation. In this study, we evaluated the dose-related effects of sevoflurane, desflurane, isoflurane, and propofol on the intraoperative ESRT and ECAP.

METHODS: Forty-four children aged 6 mo to 17 yr undergoing cochlear implantation were recruited. Each child was randomly assigned to receive sevoflurane, desflurane, isoflurane, or propofol. Evoked responses were measured by a blinded investigator at end-tidal anesthetic concentrations corresponding to 0, 0.75, and 1.5 age-adjusted minimum alveolar concentration administered in random sequence and at targeted blood concentrations of propofol of 0, 1.5, and 3.0 µg/mL. Data were analyzed using one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

RESULTS: The ESRT increased dose dependently with increasing volatile anesthetic concentration (P < 0.01). The stapedius reflex was completely abolished by volatile anesthesia in more than half of children. Propofol minimally affected the ESRT. In contrast, the ECAP was unaffected by anesthesia.

CONCLUSIONS: Volatile anesthetics suppress the stapedius reflex in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that ESRT measurements acquired during volatile anesthesia will overestimate the maximum comfort level, which may cause discomfort postoperatively and adversely affect the child’s adaptation to the implant. We advise against the use of volatile anesthetics for measurement of the stapedius reflex threshold during cochlear implant surgery.


A Randomized, Double-Blind, Multicenter Trial Comparing Transdermal Scopolamine Plus Ondansetron to Ondansetron Alone for the Prevention of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in the Outpatient Setting

Tong J. Gan, MD*, Ashish C. Sinha, MD, PhD{dagger}, Anthony L. Kovac, MD{ddagger}, R. Kevin Jones, MD, CPI§, Stephen A. Cohen, MD, MBA||, Jean P. Battikha, MS, Jonathan S. Deutsch, MD, Joseph V. Pergolizzi, Jr, MD#, the TDS Study Group**, and Section Editor Peter S. A. Glass

From the *Department of Anesthesiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina; {dagger}University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; {ddagger}University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas; §Accurate Clinical Trials Inc./Saddleback Memorial Medical Center, Laguna Hills, California; ||Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; ¶Baxter Healthcare Corporation, New Providence, New Jersey; #Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; and **The TDS Study Group consists of the following members: Gregory H. Adkisson (St. Agnes Healthcare Inc., Baltimore, MD, St. Agnes Healthcare Inc. Clinical Research Center, Baltimore, MD), Keith Candiotti (University of Miami School of Medicine, Jackson Health Systems, Miami, FL), Stephen A. Cohen (Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA), Neil R. Connelly (Baystate Medical Center, Springfield, MA), Patricia L. Dalby (Magee Women's Hospital of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA), Robert D'Angelo (Forsyth Medical Center, Winston-Salem, NC), Albert R. Davis (Loyola University Medical Center, Chicago, IL), David R. Drover (Stanford Hospital and Clinics, Stanford, CA), Tong J. Gan, Fernando Altermatt, Dianne Scott (Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, Duke Health Raleigh Hospital, Raleigh, NC, and Duke Center for Aesthetic Services, Durham, NC), Joseph S. Gimbel (AZ Research Center, John C. Lincoln Hospital, North Mountain, and John C. Lincoln Hospital, Deer Valley, Phoenix, AZ), R. Kevin Jones (Saddleback Memorial Medical Center, Laguna Hills, CA), Anthony L. Kovac (University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas, KS), John B. Leslie (Mayo Clinic Hospital, Phoenix, AZ), Robert A. McKinney, Jr. (Trinity Clinic, North Park, Mother Frances Hospital, and Tyler Square, Tyler, TX), Tricia A. Meyer (Scott and White Hospital, Temple, TX), Joseph Pergolizzi (Physicians Day Surgery Center, Naples, FL), Beverly K. Philip (Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA), Martin J. Redmond (State University of New York at Stony Brook Ambulatory Surgical Center, Stony Brook, NY), Denise A. Scaringe (Cooper University Hospital, Camden, NJ, Cooper Surgery Center, Voorhees, NJ), Ashish C. Sinha (Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA), Jeffrey M. Varga (The Western Pennsylvania Hospital-Forbes Regional Campus, Monroeville, PA), Eugene R. Viscusi (Thomas Jefferson University Hospital and Jefferson Surgical Center, Philadelphia, PA), Elliott C. Wohlner (St. Anthony Central Hospital, Denver, CO), and Mark C. Ziegler (Mercy Hospital Anderson and Mercy Anderson Ambulatory Surgery Center, Cincinnati, OH).

Anesth Analg 2009; 108:1498-1504


方法:在隨機、雙盲、多中心試驗中,620例接受門診腹腔鏡檢查或隆胸手術有PONV風險的女性病人進入手術室前2h給予活性的TDS貼片或無TDS的貼片。所有病人在全麻誘導前2-5分鐘靜脈注射OND 4 毫克,隨後進行全麻。完全止吐反應的定義爲無嘔吐/幹嘔或無解救藥物治療使用,在術後24小時和48小時判斷完全止吐反應。還收集了病人嘔吐/幹嘔、噁心或使用解救藥物治療的比例、手術結束到第一次上述反應發作的時間、離開醫院/外科中心的時間、嘔吐/幹嘔和噁心發作的次數和嚴重性以及病人對止吐治療的滿意度。

結果:相對于單獨使用OND,聯合使用TDSOND顯著地減少術後24小時噁心和嘔吐/幹嘔,但在術後48小時沒有顯著性差異出現。聯合使用TDSOND的病人沒有出現嘔吐/幹嘔和沒有使用解救藥物治療的比例是48%,而單獨使用OND 的病人的比例是39%P < 0.02)。相對於單獨使用OND組,聯合使用TDSOND組完全反應(沒有噁心,沒有嘔吐/幹嘔以及沒有使用解救藥物治療)的比例顯著更高(35%25%, P < 0.01)。相對於單獨使用OND組,聯合使用TDSOND組第一次噁心、嘔吐/幹嘔或解救治療的時間顯著更晚(P < 0.05)。相對于OND組,聯合使用TDSOND組不良事件的累積總發生率更低(36.7%49%, P < 0.01)


(王宏 譯,馬皓琳 李士通 校)

BACKGROUND: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are common complications after ambulatory surgery. We sought to determine whether the use of transdermal scopolamine (TDS) in combination with IV ondansetron (OND) is more effective than one alone for reducing PONV in outpatient settings.

METHODS: In a randomized, double blind, multicenter trial, 620 at-risk female patients undergoing outpatient laparoscopic or breast augmentation surgery received either an active TDS patch or a similar appearing sham 2 h before entering the operating room. All patients received IV OND (4 mg) 2–5 min before induction of anesthesia followed by a general anesthetic regimen. Complete antiemetic response, defined as no vomiting/retching or rescue medication use, was measured through 24 h and 48 h after surgery. The proportion of patients with vomiting/retching, nausea, or use of rescue medication, the time from the end of surgery to the first episode of these events and the time to discharge from the hospital/surgery center, as well as the number and severity of vomiting/retching and nausea episodes, and patient satisfaction with antiemetic therapy were also collected.

RESULTS: The combination of TDS + OND statistically significantly reduced nausea and vomiting/retching compared with OND alone 24 h after surgery but not at 48 h. The proportion of patients who did not experience vomiting/retching and did not use rescue medication was 48% for TDS + OND and 39% for OND alone (P < 0.02). Total response (no nausea, no vomiting/retching, and no use of rescue medication) was also statistically higher for the TDS + OND group compared with the OND-only group (35% vs 25%, P < 0.01). The time to first nausea, vomiting/retching, or rescue episode was statistically significantly longer for the TDS + OND group compared with the OND-only group (P < 0.05). The cumulative overall incidence of adverse events was lower in the TDS + OND group compared with the OND group (36.7% vs 49%, P < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS: TDS + OND reduces PONV compared with OND alone. This is achieved with a reduction in adverse events.


Mixed-Effects Modeling of the Influence of Midazolam on Propofol Pharmacokinetics

Jaap Vuyk, MD, PhD*, Bart Jan Lichtenbelt, MD{dagger}, Erik Olofsen, MSc*, Jack W. van Kleef, MD, PhD*, and Albert Dahan, MD, PhD*

From the Department of Anesthesiology, Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC), Leiden, The Netherlands; and {dagger}Department of Anesthesiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Anesth Analg 2009; 108:1522-1530


方法:我們採用隨機交叉的方式在兩個時段對8名健康男性志願者進行研究。在A期間,1 min內給予志願者1 mg/kg丙泊酚,隨後59 min連續輸注2.5 mg · kg–1 · h–1丙泊酚。在B期間,除按A方案輸注丙泊酚外,輸注丙泊酚前15 min至停止輸注後6 h採用靶控輸注咪達唑侖 (常數Ct: 125 ng/mL)。採集動脈血標本分析血液丙泊酚和血漿咪達唑侖濃度,直到丙泊酚輸注停止後6 h。採用Akaike模型選擇準則建立非線性混合效應模型研究咪達唑侖和血液動力學參數對丙泊酚藥動學的影響。

結果:與單獨輸注丙泊酚相比,聯合輸注咪達唑侖(Cblood: 224.8 ± 41.6 ng/mL)時丙泊酚血藥濃度增加25.1% ± 13.3%。咪達唑侖(Cblood: 225 ng/mL)使得丙泊酚Cl11.94 下降至1.61 L/minCl22.86下降至1.52 L/min, Cl30.95下降至0.73 L/min。包含平均動脈壓進一步改良了丙泊酚藥動學模型。


(江繼宏   馬皓琳 李士通 校)

BACKGROUND: The combined administration of anesthetics has been associated with pharmacokinetic interactions that induce concentration changes of up to 30%. Midazolam is often used as a preoperative sedative in advance of a propofol-based anesthetic. In this study, we identified the influence of midazolam on the pharmacokinetics of propofol.

METHODS: Eight healthy male volunteers were studied on two occasions in a random crossover manner. During Session A, volunteers received propofol 1 mg/kg in 1 min followed by an infusion of 2.5 mg · kg–1 · h–1 for 59 min. During Session B, in addition to this propofol infusion scheme, a target-controlled infusion of midazolam (constant Ct: 125 ng/mL) was given from 15 min before the start until 6 h after termination of the propofol infusion. Arterial blood samples for blood propofol and plasma midazolam concentration analysis were taken until 6 h after termination of the propofol infusion. Nonlinear mixed-effects models examining the influence of midazolam and hemodynamic variables on propofol pharmacokinetics were constructed using Akaike criterion for model selection.

RESULTS: In the presence of midazolam (Cblood: 224.8 ± 41.6 ng/mL), the blood propofol concentration increased by 25.1% ± 13.3% compared with when propofol was given as single drug. Midazolam (Cblood: 225 ng/mL) reduced propofol Cl1 from 1.94 to 1.61 L/min, Cl2 from 2.86 to 1.52 L/min, and Cl3 from 0.95 to 0.73 L/min. Inclusion of mean arterial blood pressure further improved the propofol pharmacokinetic model.

CONCLUSIONS: Midazolam reduces the metabolic and rapid and slow distribution clearances of propofol. In addition, a reduction in mean arterial blood pressure is associated with propofol pharmacokinetic alterations that increase the blood propofol concentration.


Noninvasive Assessment of Cardiac Index in Healthy Volunteers: A Comparison Between Thoracic Impedance Cardiography and Doppler Echocardiography

Jean-Luc Fellahi, MD, PhD*, Vincent Caille, MD{dagger}, Cyril Charron, MD{dagger}, Pierre-Hervé Deschamps-Berger, MD{ddagger}, and Antoine Vieillard-Baron, MD, PhD{dagger}

From the *Department of Anesthesiology, Centre Hospitalier Privé Saint-Martin, Caen, France; {dagger}The Intensive Care Unit, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Ambroise Paré, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Boulogne, France; and {ddagger}The Department of Cardiology, Polyclinique, Deauville, France.

Anesth Analg 2009; 108:1553-1559


方法:25名健康志願者(男性7名,女性18名,平均年齡36 ± 6歲,體表面積1.75 ± 0.17 m2)在下述三種實驗狀態下接受測定:基礎狀態,呼氣末正壓+ 10 cm H2O和通過將醫用抗休克褲腹部部分充氣至30cm H2O使得下體産生正壓。

結果:ICG信號質量>89%超過所有測量設定。觀察到CITTE CIICG之間有微弱但有顯著意義的聯繫(r = 0.36; P = 0.002)。兩種技術之間的一致性爲0.94 L · min–1 · m–2 (95% CI: 0.77–1.11),一致性的界限爲–0.472.35 L · min–1 · m–2,而百分誤差爲53%。在採用呼氣末正壓+ 10 cm H2O (r = 0.21; P = 0.31)和醫用抗休克褲(r = 0.22; P = 0.30)CITTE CIICG的百分比改變之間的聯繫不具有統計學意義。


(周雅春 李士通 馬皓琳 校)

BACKGROUND: Thoracic bioimpedance cardiography (ICG) has been proposed as a noninvasive, continuous, operator-independent, and cost-effective method for cardiac output monitoring. In the present study, we compared cardiac index (CI) measurements with ICG (NiccomoTM device) and transthoracic Doppler echocardiography in resting healthy volunteers undergoing hemodynamic load challenge.

METHODS: Twenty-five healthy volunteers (7 men and 18 women, mean age 36 ± 6 yr, body surface area 1.75 ± 0.17 m2) were investigated during three experimental conditions: baseline, positive end-expiratory pressure + 10 cm H2O and lower body positive pressure by means of medical antishock trousers inflated to 30 cm H2O in the abdominal compartment.

RESULTS: ICG signal quality was >89% over all sets of measurements. A weak but significant relationship was observed between CITTE and CIICG (r = 0.36; P = 0.002). Agreement between both techniques was 0.94 L · min–1 · m–2 (95% CI: 0.77–1.11), limits of agreement were –0.47 to 2.35 L · min–1 · m–2, and percentage error was 53%. No statistically significant relationships were found between percent changes in CITTE and CIICG after applications of positive end-expiratory pressure + 10 cm H2O (r = 0.21; P = 0.31) and medical antishock trousers (r = 0.22; P = 0.30).

CONCLUSIONS: Poor correlation and lack of agreement between absolute values of CI measured by ICG and transthoracic Doppler echocardiography were found in resting healthy volunteers. The Niccomo device was also unreliable for monitoring changes in CI during hemodynamic load challenge.


Modern Rapidly Degradable Hydroxyethyl Starches: Current Concepts

Joachim Boldt, MD

From the Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Klinikum der Stadt Ludwigshafen, Ludwigshafen, Germany.

Anesth Analg 2009; 108:1574-1582

羥乙基澱粉(HES)是一種被廣泛應用於糾正圍手術期血容量過低的血漿替代物。HES製劑是由濃度、摩爾取代度(MS)、平均分子量(Mw)C2/C6取代比、溶劑和起源定義的。HES可能存在的不願見到的副作用是過敏反應、凝血功能的改變導致的出血增加、腎功能障礙、蓄積和瘙癢症。基於潛在副作用的考慮,區分不同HES製劑很重要,因爲HES製劑不盡相同。第一代HES製劑表現出的高Mw (>450 kD)和高MS (>0.7) 産生了與凝血、器官功能和蓄積有關的不良作用。本綜述聚焦於Mw (130 kD)MS (<0.5)較低的現代(第三代)、降解更快的HES製劑是否更安全及副作用較少。幾項研究證明了這類現代HES製劑在凝血、腎功能、瘙癢和蓄積等方面顯示出安全性。現代HES製劑能溶解於適合於血漿的平衡溶液,不含非生理含量的鈉和氯,因此適用於糾正低血容量。

(唐李雋   馬皓琳  李士通 校)

Hydroxyethyl starch (HES) is a widely used plasma substitute for correcting perioperative hypovolemia. HES preparations are defined by concentration, molar substitution (MS), mean molecular weight (Mw), the C2/C6 ratio of substitution, the solvent, and the origin. The possible unwanted side effects of HES are anaphylactic reactions, alterations of hemostasis resulting in increased bleeding, kidney dysfunction, accumulation, and pruritus. In view of the potential side effects, it is crucial to distinguish among the different HES preparations; all HES preparations are not the same. The first generation of HES preparation showing a high Mw (>450 kD) and a high MS (>0.7) was associated with negative effects with regard to coagulation, organ function, and accumulation. This review is focused on whether modern (third generation), more rapidly degradable HES preparations with a lower Mw (130 kD) and a lower MS (<0.5) are safer and have fewer side effects. Several studies demonstrated that such modern HES preparations appear to be safe with regard to hemostasis, kidney function, itching, and accumulation. Modern HES preparations are dissolved in balanced, plasma-adapted solutions that no longer contain unphysiological amounts of sodium and chloride and are thus suitable for correcting hypovolemia.


Amniotic Fluid Embolism


Richard S. Gist, MD*, Irene P. Stafford, MD{dagger}, Andrew B. Leibowitz, MD*, and Yaakov Beilin, MD*{ddagger}

From the *Department of Anesthesiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine of New York University, New York City, New York; {dagger}Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas; and {ddagger}Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine of New York University, New York City, New York.

Anesth Analg 2009; 108:1599-1602


(黃佳佳譯,馬皓琳 李士通校)

Amniotic fluid embolism is one of the most catastrophic complications of pregnancy. First described in 1941, the condition is exceedingly rare and the exact pathophysiology is still unknown. The etiology was thought to be embolic in nature, but more recent evidence suggests an immunologic basis. Common presenting symptoms include dyspnea, nonreassuring fetal status, hypotension, seizures, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Early recognition of amniotic fluid embolism is critical to a successful outcome. However, despite intensive resuscitation, outcomes are frequently poor for both infant and mother. Recently, aggressive and successful management of amniotic fluid embolism with recombinant factor VIIa and a ventricular assist device, inhaled nitric oxide, cardiopulmonary bypass and intraaortic balloon pump with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation have been reported and should be considered in select cases.


Phenylephrine Ameliorates Cerebral Cytotoxic Edema and Reduces Cerebral Infarction Volume in a Rat Model of Complete Unilateral Carotid Artery Occlusion with Severe Hypotension

Seiji Ishikawa, MD, Hiroyuki Ito, MD, Kuninori Yokoyama, PhD, and Koshi Makita, MD

From the Department of Anesthesiology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Graduate School of Medicine, Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Anesth Analg 2009; 108:1631-1637


方法:(實驗121只成年雄性斯普拉-道來大鼠吸入異氟烷進行麻醉,肺部機械通氣。在右側頸總動脈被結紮後,抽取動脈血直至平均動脈壓(MAP)低至30 mm Hg以造成腦缺血。當平均動脈壓在30 mm Hg持續10分鐘後小鼠被隨機分成三組(每組7只)。去氧腎上腺素組靜脈注射去氧腎上腺素來維持平均動脈壓至70 ± 3 mm Hg維持5分鐘,安慰劑組與苯腎同等體積的生理鹽水持續給予5分鐘,對照組什麽藥都不給予,維持平均動脈壓在30 mm Hg。驅血後30分鐘,以0.25 mL/min的速度重新靜脈輸注抽取的血液。連續獲得彌散加權的磁共振成像,建立表現彌散係數圖像來測定細胞毒性水腫的量。(實驗2)爲了分析去氧腎上腺素對右大腦中動脈範圍中局部腦血流量(rCBF)的影響,另外添加的15只小鼠(每組5只)用鐳射多普勒血流儀測得rCBF

結果:(實驗1)在驅血後10分鐘,去氧腎上腺素組(357.5 ± 93.5 mm3)、安慰劑組(333.5 ± 69.6 mm3)和對照組(303.1 ± 85.8 mm3)的細胞毒性水腫量之間沒有顯著區別。對照組隨著時間延長,低表現彌散係數的區域顯著擴大,然而在去氧腎上腺素組去氧腎上腺素輸注後這種區域開始減小,而且在30分鐘內就幾乎全部消失了。去氧腎上腺素組最終的腦梗塞量(3.9 ± 2.6 mm3)比安慰劑組(341.5 ± 213.7 mm3)和對照組(509.1 ± 197.0 mm3)都明顯要小(P < 0.01)。(實驗2)雖然在10分鐘驅血後rCBF 比減少到了基礎值的40%–50%,但是去氧腎上腺素立即增加了rCBF值超過基礎水平。在安慰劑組rCBF顯著增加,但是和去氧腎上腺素組相比稍有滯後。



BACKGROUND: Phenylephrine is a selective {alpha}1 adrenergic receptor agonist that increases arterial blood pressure by peripheral vasoconstriction. However, whether phenylephrine improves the outcome of cerebral ischemia in patients with internal carotid artery disease during hemorrhagic shock is unclear.

METHODS: (Experiment 1) Twenty-one adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized with isoflurane and their lungs mechanically ventilated. After the right common carotid artery was ligated, arterial blood was withdrawn until mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) reached 30 mm Hg to induce cerebral ischemia. After MAP was maintained at 30 mm Hg for 10 min, the animals were randomly allocated to three groups (n = 7 each). In the phenylephrine group, phenylephrine was administered IV to maintain a MAP of 70 ± 3 mm Hg for 5 min. In the saline group, an identical volume of normal physiologic saline was continuously administered for 5 min. In the control group, neither phenylephrine nor saline was administered and MAP was maintained at 30 mm Hg. At 30 min of exsanguination, the withdrawn blood was reinfused IV at a rate of 0.25 mL/min. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images were serially acquired and apparent diffusion coefficient maps were created to determine the volume of cytotoxic edema. (Experiment 2) To analyze the effect of phenylephrine on the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the right middle cerebral artery territory, rCBF was measured using laser Doppler flowmetry in 15 additional rats (n = 5 each).

RESULTS: (Experiment 1) At 10 min of exsanguination, there were no significant differences in the volume of cytotoxic edema among the phenylephrine (357.5 ± 93.5 mm3), saline (333.5 ± 69.6 mm3), and control (303.1 ± 85.8 mm3) groups. Low apparent diffusion coefficient regions significantly expanded with time in the control group, whereas they started to decrease just after phenylephrine infusion and almost all had disappeared within 30 min in the phenylephrine group. The final infarction volume in the phenylephrine group (3.9 ± 2.6 mm3, P < 0.01) was significantly lower than that in the saline group (341.5 ± 213.7 mm3) and control group (509.1 ± 197.0 mm3). (Experiment 2) Although rCBF decreased to 40%–50% of the baseline at 10 min of exsanguination, phenylephrine immediately increased rCBF over the baseline level. In the saline group, rCBF increased significantly, but there was some delay compared with the phenylephrine group.

CONCLUSIONS: Phenylephrine ameliorated cytotoxic edema and decreased the infarction volume in a rat model of complete unilateral carotid artery occlusion with severe hypotension. These findings suggest that phenylephrine transiently increased CBF without increasing the tonus of cerebral vasculature during hemorrhagic shock.


The Effect of Amitriptyline on Ectopic Discharge of Primary Afferent Fibers in the L5 Dorsal Root in a Rat Model of Neuropathic Pain

Xin Su, MD, Annie H. Liang, MD, and Mark O. Urban, PhD

From the Department of Pain Research, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, Pennsylvania.

Anesth Analg 2009; 108:1671-1679



結果:由瞬間頻率和放電峰間隙的分佈來看,未手術大鼠的傳入纖維具有高頻(35.23 ± 6.63 Hz)和模式化自發放電。在SNL手術後大鼠,傳入神經纖維呈無規律模式自發放電(平均11.05 ± 3.66 Hz)或在某些動物呈短暫爆發活動。未手術大鼠僅5/13(38%)傳入纖維在應用阿米替林(2 mg/kg, IV)後自發電活動減少,而阿米替林顯著抑制SNL大鼠13/18(72%)傳入纖維的異位放電(ID50 = 1.66 ± 0.17 mg/kg)。而且,阿米替林的最大抑制效應總是出現於具有低頻(<20 Hz)/或爆發放電的傳入纖維。


(顔濤 譯, 馬皓琳  李士通 校)

BACKGROUND: The sodium channel blocker amitriptyline has been shown to inhibit ectopic discharge in injured nerves. In the present study, we characterized ectopic discharges of afferent fibers following L5/L6 spinal nerve ligation (SNL) by their electrophysiological properties and sensitivities to inhibition by amitriptyline in the decentralized L5 dorsal root in SNL rats.

METHODS: Rats exhibiting withdrawal thresholds <4.0 g after SNL were selected for the present study. After laminectomy in pentobarbital-anesthetized rats, the L5 dorsal root was decentralized close to its entry to the spinal cord, and the spontaneous activities of single units were recorded peripherally before and after IV administration of amitriptyline. The mean frequency of afferent fiber activity and instantaneous frequency were measured.

RESULTS: The spontaneous activities of afferent fibers in naïve rats had high frequency (35.23 ± 6.63 Hz) and pattern discharge based on their instantaneous frequencies and interspike interval distributions. In rats that had received SNL, afferent fibers exhibited spontaneous discharge (mean of 11.05 ± 3.66 Hz) with an irregular discharge pattern or short bursting activity in some cases. Only 5/13 (38%) afferent fibers from naïve rats showed reduced spontaneous activities after amitriptyline (2 mg/kg, IV), whereas amitriptyline significantly inhibited ectopic discharge in 13/18 (72%) afferent fibers from SNL rats (ID50 = 1.66 ± 0.17 mg/kg). Furthermore, the greatest inhibitory effect of amitriptyline was consistently observed on those afferent fibers exhibiting low frequency (<20 Hz) and/or bursting discharge.

CONCLUSION: These results provide direct evidence that amitriptyline, which is used clinically for the treatment of neuropathic pain, selectively inhibits ectopic discharge of low frequency and bursting discharge in the rat neuropathic pain model.


A Prospective Randomized Comparison of Ultrasound and Neurostimulation as Needle End Points for Interscalene Catheter Placement

Michael J. Fredrickson, MD*{ddagger}, Craig M. Ball, MD{dagger}, Adam J. Dalgleish, MD§, Alistair W. Stewart, BSc{ddagger}, and Tim G. Short, MD*{ddagger}

From the Departments of *Anesthesia and {dagger}Orthopedic Surgery, Auckland City Hospital; {ddagger}Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Grafton, Auckland, New Zealand; and §Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Middlemore Hospital, Manukau City, Auckland, New Zealand.

Anesth Analg 2009; 108:1695-1700


方法:招募行肩部手術的患者。套管針進針一開始在out-of-plane超聲成像的引導下進行,隨後前瞻性隨機分爲超聲下將針放至肌間溝交界面的側方(n = 41)或在電流 <0.5 mA 時獲得合適的運動反應(n = 40)。然後導管被盲目地送入超過針尖2-3cm的部位。所有手術在全麻下進行。手術結束時,設置0.2%羅呱卡因2mL/h輸注,並按需隨時給予5mL的單次輸注量,在家持續2-5天。記錄針在皮膚下的時間以及進針時數位等級疼痛評分(NRPS)。病人記錄術後第1天和第2天最嚴重的NRPS以及追加的羅呱卡因單次輸注和曲馬多的需要量。第10天,就新的神經症狀詢問所有病人。

結果:術後48h內,靜息下和活動時最差的NRPS和追加羅呱卡因單次輸注或曲馬多的需要量均無顯著差別。在超聲組,有一例未獲得滿意的超聲成像。在神經刺激組,所有病人獲得合適的運動反應。針在皮膚下時間的中位數(四分位數)在超聲組爲78 (65–101) s,而在神經刺激組爲108 (94–129) s (P < 0.001)。穿刺時NRPS的中位數(四分位數)在超聲組爲2 (0–4),而在神經刺激組爲3 (1–5) (P < 0.048)。兩組間神經並發症的發生率沒有差別。


(黃施偉 譯,馬皓琳 李士通 校)

BACKGROUND: In this prospective, randomized study, we tested the hypothesis that interscalene catheters placed for shoulder surgery using an ultrasound needle end point provide postoperative analgesia similar in quality to those placed using a neurostimulation needle end point. Secondary end points included needle time under the skin, procedure-related pain, and the incidence of early neurological complications.

METHODS: Patients presenting for shoulder surgery were recruited. Needles introduced for catheter insertion were initially guided with out-of-plane ultrasound imaging but were prospectively randomized to either sonographic placement immediately lateral to the interscalene interface (n = 41) or to an appropriate motor response at <0.5 mA (n = 40). Catheters were then advanced blindly 2–3 cm beyond needle tip. All surgery was conducted under general anesthesia. At the end of surgery, an infusion of ropivacaine 0.2% 2 mL/h with as-required hourly 5 mL boluses was instituted and continued at home for 2–5 days. Needle time under the skin and numerical rating pain score (NRPS) during insertion were recorded. Patients recorded worst NRPS, the need for supplementary ropivacaine boluses and tramadol on postoperative days 1 and 2. All patients were questioned at Day 10 for new neurological symptoms.

RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the worst NRPS at rest and on movement and the requirement for supplementary ropivacaine boluses or tramadol during the first 48 postoperative hours. In one patient in group ultrasound, a satisfactory ultrasound image was unobtainable. An appropriate motor response was obtained in all subjects in group neurostimulation. The median (quartiles) needle time under the skin was 78 (65–101) s in group ultrasound and 108 (94–129) s in group neurostimulation (P < 0.001). The median (quartiles) insertion NRPS was 2 (0–4) in group ultrasound and 3 (1–5) in group neurostimulation (P < 0.048). There was no difference in the frequency of neurological complications between groups.

CONCLUSIONS: Interscalene catheters placed for shoulder surgery using an ultrasound needle end point provide postoperative analgesia that is of similar quality to that obtained when using a neurostimulation needle end point. The ultrasound end point was associated with a reduction in needle under the skin time and procedure-related pain.


An Anatomical Study of the Parasacral Block Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Healthy Volunteers

Maeve O'Connor, MB, BCh, BAO*, Margaret Coleman, FFARCSI*, Fintan Wallis, FRCR{dagger}, and Dominic Harmon, MD, FCARCSI*

From the Departments of *Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, and {dagger}Radiology, Mid-Western Regional Hospital, Dooradoyle, Limerick, Ireland.

Anesth Analg 2009; 108:1708-1712





(朱 慧譯 馬皓琳 李士通校)


BACKGROUND: The parasacral approach to sciatic blockade is reported to be easy to learn and perform, with a high success rate and few complications.

METHODS: Using magnetic resonance imaging, we evaluated the accuracy of a simulated needle (perpendicular to skin) in contacting the sacral plexus with this approach in 10 volunteers. Intrapelvic structures encountered during the simulated parasacral blocks were also recorded.

RESULTS: The sacral plexus was contacted by the simulated needle in 4 of the 10 volunteers, and the sciatic nerve itself in one volunteer. The plexus was accurately located adjacent to a variety of visceral structures, including small bowel, blood vessels, and ovary. In the remaining five volunteers (in whom the plexus was not contacted on first needle pass), small bowel, rectum, blood vessels, seminal vesicles, and bony structures were encountered. Historically, when plexus is not encountered, readjustment of the needle insertion point more caudally has been recommended. We found that such an adjustment resulted in simulated perforation of intrapelvic organs or the perianal fossa.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings question the reliability of the anatomical landmarks of the parasacral block and raise the possibility of frequent visceral puncture using this technique.



Optimal Perfusion During Cardiopulmonary Bypass: An Evidence-Based Approach

Glenn S. Murphy, MD*, Eugene A. Hessel, II, MD{dagger}, and Robert C. Groom, MS, CCP{ddagger}

From the *Department of Anesthesiology, Evanston Northwestern Healthcare and Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Evanston, Illinois; {dagger}Department of Anesthesiology and Surgery (Cardiothoracic), University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexigton Kentucky; and {ddagger}Department of Cardiovascular Perfusion, Maine Medical Center, Portland, Maine.

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1394-1417.



(懷曉蓉 譯 陳傑 校)

In this review, we summarize the best available evidence to guide the conduct of adult cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) to achieve "optimal" perfusion. At the present time, there is considerable controversy relating to appropriate management of physiologic variables during CPB. Low-risk patients tolerate mean arterial blood pressures of 50–60 mm Hg without apparent complications, although limited data suggest that higher-risk patients may benefit from mean arterial blood pressures >70 mm Hg. The optimal hematocrit on CPB has not been defined, with large data-based investigations demonstrating that both severe hemodilution and transfusion of packed red blood cells increase the risk of adverse postoperative outcomes. Oxygen delivery is determined by the pump flow rate and the arterial oxygen content and organ injury may be prevented during more severe hemodilutional anemia by increasing pump flow rates. Furthermore, the optimal temperature during CPB likely varies with physiologic goals, and recent data suggest that aggressive rewarming practices may contribute to neurologic injury. The design of components of the CPB circuit may also influence tissue perfusion and outcomes. Although there are theoretical advantages to centrifugal blood pumps over roller pumps, it has been difficult to demonstrate that the use of centrifugal pumps improves clinical outcomes. Heparin coating of the CPB circuit may attenuate inflammatory and coagulation pathways, but has not been clearly demonstrated to reduce major morbidity and mortality. Similarly, no distinct clinical benefits have been observed when open venous reservoirs have been compared to closed systems. In conclusion, there are currently limited data upon which to confidently make strong recommendations regarding how to conduct optimal CPB. There is a critical need for randomized trials assessing clinically significant outcomes, particularly in high-risk patients.




The Effects of Platelet Transfusions Evaluated Using Rotational Thromboelastometry

Per Flisberg, MD, PhD*, Malin Rundgren, MD*, and Martin Engström, MD, PhD{dagger}

From the *Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden; and {dagger}Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Halmstad Central Hospital, Halmstad, Sweden.

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1430-1432.






(朱紫瑜 譯 陳傑 校)

BACKGROUND: In this study, we assessed the immediate effects of platelet transfusion on whole blood coagulation.

METHODS: Ten thrombocytopenic patients given a single unit platelet transfusion of 200–300 x 109 platelets had their coagulation status assessed before and immediately after transfusion using rotational thromboelastometry.

RESULTS: Transfusion increased the median platelet count from 31.5 to 43.5 x 109/L. Clot formation time decreased by 32% (P = 0.005), whereas maximum clot strength increased by 47% (P = 0.005).

CONCLUSION: Statistically significant improvements in rotational thromboelastometry-measured parameters were observed in association with a mean increase of 12 x 109/L in platelet count after platelet transfusion in these patients.




Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation: Anesthetic Considerations

Frederic T. Billings, IV, MD*, Susheel K. Kodali, MD{dagger}, and Jack S. Shanewise, MD*

From the Departments of *Anesthesiology, and {dagger}Internal Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, New York, New York.

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1453-1462.









(周姝婧 譯 陳傑 校)

Aortic valvular stenosis remains the most common debilitating valvular heart lesion. Despite the benefit of aortic valve (AV) replacement, many high-risk patients cannot tolerate surgery. AV implantation treats aortic stenosis without subjecting patients to sternotomy, cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), and aorta cross-clamping. This transcatheter procedure is performed via puncture of the left ventricular (LV) apex or percutaneously, via the femoral artery or vein. Patients undergo general anesthesia, intense hemodynamic manipulation, and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE).

To elucidate the role of the anesthesiologist in the management of transcatheter AV implantation, we review the literature and provide our experience, focusing on anesthetic care, intraoperative events, TEE, and perioperative complications.

Two approaches to the aortic annulus are performed today: transfemoral retrograde and transapical antegrade. Iliac artery size and tortuosity, aortic arch atheroma, and pathology in the area of the (LV) apex help determine the preferred approach in each patient.

A general anesthetic is tailored to achieve extubation after procedure completion, whereas IV access and pharmacological support allow for emergent sternotomy and initiation of CPB. Rapid ventricular pacing and cessation of mechanical ventilation interrupts cardiac ejection and minimizes heart translocation during valvuloplasty and prosthesis implantation. Although these maneuvers facilitate exact prosthesis positioning within the native annulus, they promote hypotension and arrhythmia. Vasopressor administration before pacing and cardioversion may restore adequate hemodynamics.

TEE determines annulus size, aortic pathology, ventricular function, and mitral regurgitation. TEE and fluoroscopy are used for positioning the introducer catheter within the aortic annulus. The prosthesis, crimped on a valvuloplasty balloon catheter, is implanted by inflation. TEE immediately measures aortic regurgitation and assesses for aortic dissection. After repair of femoral vessels or LV apex, patients are allowed to emerge and assessed for extubation.

Observed and published complications include aortic regurgitation, prosthesis embolization, mitral valve disruption, hemorrhage, aortic dissection, CPB, stroke, and death.

Transcatheter AV implantation relies on intraoperative hemodynamic manipulation for success. Transfemoral and transapical approaches pose unique management challenges, but both require rapid ventricular pacing, the management of hypotension and arrhythmias during beating-heart valve implantation, and TEE. Anesthesiologists will care for debilitated patients with aortic stenosis receiving transcatheter AV implantation.


Ultrasound Versus Landmark-Based Technique for Ilioinguinal-Iliohypogastric Nerve Blockade in Children: The Implications on Plasma Levels of Ropivacaine

Marion Weintraud, MD*, Märit Lundblad, MD{dagger}, Stephan C. Kettner, MD*, Harald Willschke, MD*, Stephan Kapral, MD*, Per-Arne Lönnqvist, MD{dagger}, Karl Koppatz{ddagger}, Klaus Turnheim, MD{ddagger}, Adrian Bsenberg, MD§, and Peter Marhofer, MD*

From the *Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; {dagger}Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Karolinska Hospital/Astrid Lindgren Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; {ddagger}Department of Pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; and §Department of Anesthesia, University Cape Town, Red Cross Children Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa.

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1488-1492.



方法 全身麻醉下66名擬行腹股溝疝修補術的兒童(8-84個月)使用0.5%的羅呱卡因0.25ml/kg1.25mg/kg)行髂腹股溝-髂腹下神經阻滯。這些兒童接受體表標誌定位技術(n=31)或超聲引導技術(n=35)。在注射局部麻醉藥之前(0)以及注射後5102030分鐘後採用高效液相色譜法測量羅呱卡因的血藥濃度。測定血漿峰濃度(Cmax),達到血漿峰濃度的時間(tmax),吸收速率常數(ka),血藥濃度上升速率(dC0/dt)以及曲線下面積值(AUC)。  

 結果:與體表標誌爲基礎的定位技術相比,超聲引導技術導致了較高的Cmax (sd), ka, dC0/dt和曲線下面積值(AUC),以及較短的tmax(Cmax: 1.78 [0.62] vs 1.23 [0.70] µg/mL, P < 0.01; ka: 14.4 [10.7] vs 11.7 [11.4] h–1, P < 0.05; dC0/dt: 0.26 [0.12] vs 0.15 [0.03] µg/mL · min, P < 0.01; AUC: 42.4 [15.9] vs 27.2 [18.1] µg · 30 min/mL, P < 0.001; tmax: 20.4 [8.6] vs 25.3 [7.6] min, P < 0.05).


(黃丹 譯 陳傑 校)

BACKGROUND: Ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric nerve blockade (INB) is associated with high plasma concentrations of local anesthetics (LAs) in children. Ultrasonographic guidance enables exact anatomical administration of LA, which may alter plasma levels. Accordingly, we compared plasma levels of ropivacaine after ultrasonographic versus landmark-based INB.

METHODS: After induction of general anesthesia, 66 children (8–84 mo) scheduled for inguinal hernia repair received INB with 0.25 mL/kg of ropivacaine 0.5% (1.25 mg/kg) either by a landmark-based (n = 31) or by an ultrasound-guided technique (n = 35). Ropivacaine plasma levels were measured before (0) and 5, 10, 20, and 30 min after the LA injection, using high-performance liquid chromatography. Maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax), time to Cmax (tmax), the absorption rate constant (ka), the speed of rise of the plasma concentration at Time 0 (dC0/dt), and area under the curve value (AUC) were determined.

RESULTS: The ultrasound-guided technique resulted in higher Cmax (sd), ka, dC0/dt, and AUC values and shorter tmax compared with the landmark-based technique (Cmax: 1.78 [0.62] vs 1.23 [0.70] µg/mL, P < 0.01; ka: 14.4 [10.7] vs 11.7 [11.4] h–1, P < 0.05; dC0/dt: 0.26 [0.12] vs 0.15 [0.03] µg/mL · min, P < 0.01; AUC: 42.4 [15.9] vs 27.2 [18.1] µg · 30 min/mL, P < 0.001; tmax: 20.4 [8.6] vs 25.3 [7.6] min, P < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: The pharmacokinetic data indicate faster absorption and higher maximal plasma concentration of LA when ultrasound was used as a guidance technique for INB compared with the landmark-based technique. Thus, a reduction of the volume of LA should be considered when using an ultrasound-guided technique for INB.

使用瑞芬太尼有利於插入Cobra喉周通氣道(Cobra PLA)

The Use of Remifentanil to Facilitate the Insertion of the Cobra Perilaryngeal Airway

Woo Jae Jeon, MD, Kyoung Hun Kim, MD, Jung Kook Suh, MD, and Sang Yun Cho, MD

From the Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea.

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1505-1509.


背景:在使用異丙酚前給瑞芬太尼利於喉罩插入。作者設計本研究以確定在給予異丙酚時瑞芬太尼是否也利於喉周通氣道( CobraPLA )的插入。

方法:芬太尼和異丙酚都通過效應室靶控輸注給予。實驗分四組,25例。每組的異丙酚效應室濃度爲6 μg / ml。在用異丙酚進行麻醉誘導前使R1組的瑞芬目標效應室濃度達到 1 ng / ml R2組達到2 ng / ml R3組達到3ng / mlR4組達到4 ng / ml。插入CobraPLA容易程度分級以下3個等級: 1級,良好,對CobraPLA的插入沒有反應;2級,可接受,在CobraPLA 插入時出現噁心嘔吐;3級,極差,無法打開口腔或咬住插入的CobraPLA
結果:大多數分級爲良好的患者即被評爲1級主要出現在R4 ,人數明顯高於R1組和R2 組( P < 0.01 ,但與R3組相比無顯著差異。呼吸暫停時間有呈劑量依賴性增加( P <0.01 R2組中位數爲2.95minR3 組中位數爲7.9min ,但在R3組和R4組間無顯著差異。與R1組及R2組相比R4組在CobraPLA插入後一分鐘內低血壓的發生率更高( P <0.01 )。R3組與其他各組相比低血壓的發生率沒有明顯差異。而在插入後1min內高血壓的發生率在R1R2組比R3R4組更普遍 P <0.01 )。
結論:瑞芬太尼的效應室濃度在2 ng / ml時能提供最好的CobraPLA插入條件,在第一次嘗試時血流動力學波動最小,呼吸暫停時間最短。

(潘錢玲 譯 陳傑 校)

BACKGROUND: The use of remifentanil before propofol administration facilitates the insertion of the Laryngeal Mask Airway. We designed the present study to determine whether remifentanil would also create more suitable conditions for providing Cobra Perilaryngeal airway (CobraPLA) insertion when administered with propofol.

METHODS: Both remifentanil and propofol were given as effect-site target-controlled infusions. There were four groups of 25 patients each. The propofol effect-site concentration was set at 6 µg/mL in all groups. Group R1 received a target effect-site remifentanil concentration of 1 ng/mL, Group R2 received remifentanil at 2 ng/mL, Group R3 received remifentanil at 3 ng/mL, and Group R4 received remifentanil at 4 ng/mL before the induction of anesthesia with propofol. The ease of insertion of CobraPLA was graded by the following 3-point scale: Grade 1, excellent, no response to CobraPLA insertion; Grade 2, acceptable, gagging or swallowing with insertion of CobraPLA; Grade 3, poor, unable to open mouth or biting upon insertion of CobraPLA.

RESULTS: The most patients ranked as excellent for the first CobraPLA insertion (Grade 1) were found in Group R4, which was significantly higher than Groups R1 and R2 (P < 0.01), whereas no significant difference was found when compared with Group R3. The duration of apnea showed a significant dose-related increase (P < 0.01), especially between Group R2 (median 2.95 min) and R3 (median 7.9 min), but there was no significant difference between Groups R3 and R4. The incidence of hypotension in Group R4 within 1 min after insertion of CobraPLA was significantly more than for Groups R1 and R2 (P < 0.01). No significant differences could be found between the incidence of hypotension between Group R3 and the other groups. The incidence of hypertension at 1 min postinsertion was significantly more common in Groups R1 and R2 than Groups R3 and R4 (P < 0.01).

CONCLUSION: An effect-site concentration of remifentanil of 2 ng/mL provides excellent conditions for insertion of the CobraPLA on the first attempt with minimal hemodynamic perturbations and a shorter duration of apnea.


Isovaleric, Methylmalonic, and Propionic Acid Decrease Anesthetic EC50 in Tadpoles, Modulate Glycine Receptor Function, and Interact with the Lipid 1,2-Dipalmitoyl-Sn-Glycero-3-Phosphocholine

Yun Weng, PhD*, Tienyi Theresa Hsu, BS{dagger}, Jing Zhao, MD{ddagger}, Stefanie Nishimura, PhD{dagger}, Gerald G. Fuller, PhD{dagger}, and James M. Sonner, MD{ddagger}

From the *Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, California; {dagger}Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, California; and {ddagger}Department of Anesthesia, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1538-1545.






(趙嫣紅 譯 陳傑 校)

INTRODUCTION: Elevated concentrations of isovaleric (IVA), methylmalonic (MMA), and propionic acid are associated with impaired consciousness in genetic diseases (organic acidemias). We conjectured that part of the central nervous system depression observed in these disorders was due to anesthetic effects of these metabolites. We tested three hypotheses. First, that these metabolites would have anesthetic-sparing effects, possibly being anesthetics by themselves. Second, that these compounds would modulate glycine and {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptor function, increasing chloride currents through these channels as potent clinical inhaled anesthetics do. Third, that these compounds would affect physical properties of lipids.

METHODS: Anesthetic EC50s were measured in Xenopus laevis tadpoles. Glycine and GABAA receptors were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and studied using two-electrode voltage clamping. Pressure-area isotherms of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) monolayers were measured with and without added organic acids.

RESULTS: IVA acid was an anesthetic in tadpoles, whereas MMA and propionic acid decreased isoflurane’s EC50 by half. All three organic acids concentration-dependently increased current through {alpha}1 glycine receptors. There were minimal effects on {alpha}1β2{gamma}2s GABAA receptors. The organic acids increased total lateral pressure (surface pressure) of DPPC monolayers, including at mean molecular areas typical of bilayers.

CONCLUSION: IVA, MMA, and propionic acid have anesthetic effects in tadpoles, positively modulate glycine receptor function and affect physical properties of DPPC monolayers.


Levels of Consciousness During Regional Anesthesia and Monitored Anesthesia Care: Patient Expectations and Experiences

Roy K. Esaki, MS, and George A. Mashour, MD, PhD

From the Department of Anesthesiology, University of Michigan Medical School, Michigan.

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1560-1563.



(張燕 陳傑 校)

Complaints of "intraoperative awareness" after regional anesthesia and monitored anesthesia care have been reported. We hypothesized that this may be due to either unmet expectations regarding levels of consciousness or states of consciousness resembling general anesthesia. A structured interview assessing expected and experienced levels of consciousness was given to 117 patients who underwent regional anesthesia or monitored anesthesia care. Complete unconsciousness was the state most often expected and subjectively experienced. Furthermore, only 58% of patients had expectations set by the anesthesia provider. These data indicate that, from the patient’s perspective, the boundary between general and nongeneral anesthesia is obscured.


Ventilation Strategies in the Obstructed Airway in a Bench Model Simulating a Nonintubated Respiratory Arrest Patient

Holger Herff, MD, Peter Paal, MD, Achim von Goedecke, MD, MSc, Thomas Mitterlechner, MD, Christian A. Schmittinger, DVM, MD, and Volker Wenzel, MD, MSc

From the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria.

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1585-1588.


背景The Smart Bag MO®是成年人氣流限制袋瓣裝置,用以降低無氣道保護時胃膨脹的風險。在嚴重呼吸道阻塞時其特性仍不清楚。

方法:在這種臺式模型中,氣道阻力在4 1020 cm H2O · L–1 · s–1,使用氣流限制袋瓣裝置和標準袋瓣裝置來類比無保護氣道的呼吸驟停患者,評價其呼吸力學和潮氣量。

結果:氣流限制袋瓣裝置的吸氣時間比標準袋瓣裝置長。類比氣道通暢的肺潮氣量,氣流限制袋瓣裝置是750 ± 70毫升,標準袋瓣裝置(生理鹽水)是780 ± 30毫升;在類比氣道阻塞時它們潮氣量分別是800 ± 70850 ± 20毫升( NS )的,在類比嚴重氣道阻塞時變爲是210 ± 20170 ± 10毫升( P 0.01 。在類比氣道通暢時,使用氣流限制袋瓣裝置的氣道峰壓是15 ± 2 cm H2O 而使用標準袋瓣裝置的是22 ± 4 cm H2O P0.01 ;在類比氣道阻塞時氣道峰壓分別是22 ± 1 39 ± 7 cm H2O P 0.01 ,在類比嚴重氣道阻塞時分別是26 ± 161 ± 3 cm H2O P 0.01 。類比通暢氣道時,這兩種裝置引起的胃脹氣都爲0 mL/min;在類比氣道阻塞時,流量限制袋瓣裝置的胃脹氣是0 mL/min而標準袋瓣裝置爲200 ± 20 mL/min P 0.01 ,在類比嚴重氣道阻塞分別是0 mL/min1240± 50 mL/min P 0.01

(張磊 譯 陳傑 校)

BACKGROUND: The Smart Bag MO® is an adult flow-limited bag-valve device designed to reduce the risk of stomach inflation in an unprotected airway. Its properties in severe airway obstruction are as yet unknown.

METHODS: In a bench model, we evaluated respiratory mechanics and delivered tidal volumes although ventilating at airway resistances of 4, 10, and 20 cm H2O · L–1 · s–1 once with a flow-limited bag-valve device and once with a standard bag-valve device to simulate a respiratory arrest patient with an unprotected airway.

RESULTS: Inspiratory times were always longer with the flow-limited bag-valve device than with the standard bag-valve device. Lung tidal volume in the simulated unobstructed airway was 750 ± 70 mL using the flow-limited bag-valve device versus 780 ± 30 mL using the standard bag-valve device (n.s.); in the simulated medium obstructed airway it was 800 ± 70 versus 850 ± 20 mL (n.s.), and in the simulated severely obstructed airway it was 210 ± 20 versus 170 ± 10 mL (P < 0.01). Peak airway pressure in the simulated unobstructed airway was 15 ± 2 cm H2O using the flow-limited bag-valve device versus 22 ± 4 cm H2O using the standard bag-valve device (P < 0.01); in the simulated medium obstructed airway it was 22 ± 1 versus 39 ± 7 cm H2O (P < 0.01), and in the simulated severely obstructed airway it was 26 ± 1 versus 61 ± 3 cm H2O (P < 0.01). Stomach inflation in the simulated unobstructed airway was 0 mL/min using both bag-valve devices; in the simulated medium obstructed airway it was 0 mL/min for the flow-limited bag-valve device versus 200 ± 20 mL/min for the standard bag-valve device (P < 0.01), and in the simulated severely obstructed airway it was 0 versus 1240 ± 50 mL/min (P < 0.01).

CONCLUSION: In a simulated severely obstructed unprotected airway, the use of a flow-limited bag-valve device resulted in longer inspiratory times, higher tidal volumes, lower inspiratory pressures, and no stomach inflation compared with a standard bag-valve device.

Growth Rates in Pediatric Diagnostic Imaging and Sedation

Ruth E. Wachtel, PhD, MBA*, Franklin Dexter, MD, PhD{dagger}, and Angella J. Dow, BS{ddagger}

From the *Department of Anesthesia, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa; Departments of Anesthesia and Health Management and Policy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa; and {ddagger}Farrell Growth Group, LLC, Liberty, Missouri.

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1616-1621.

結果:接受麻醉工作者提供麻醉進行MRICT檢查的小兒的數量增長率與接受MRICT檢查數量的增長率同爲8 -9 。接受麻醉的兒童所占百分比12年來沒有變化。建立一個護士鎮靜團隊提供適度鎮靜並沒有改變接受麻醉的兒童的數量,但是增加了接受催眠藥的兒童總數。麻醉很少用於少於30分鐘的掃描。掃描時間的延長與麻醉下接受MRI/CT檢查人群的年齡分層成正相關。3-5歲年齡段接受麻醉的比例最高。

(舒慧剛 譯 陳傑 校)

BACKGROUND: Workload has increased greatly over the past decade for anesthesia providers administering general anesthesia and/or sedation for pediatric diagnostic imaging.

METHODS: Data from an academic medical center were studied over a 12-yr period. Growth in the number of children 0–17 yr of age undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and/or computerized tomography (CT) scans who received care from anesthesia providers was compared with the increase in the total number of MRI and CT procedures performed in children. Anesthesia providers included anesthesiologists, residents, Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists, and student Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists. Toward the end of the study, a team of sedation nurses was employed by the hospital to administer moderate sedation. They provided an alternative to anesthesia providers from the anesthesia department, who usually administered general anesthesia. Use of sedation nurses versus anesthesia providers, and the relationship to scan duration and patient age, were studied over a 6-mo period.

RESULTS: The number of children receiving care from anesthesia providers for MRI and CT scans grew at the same 8%–9% annual rate as the number of scans performed. The percentage of children receiving anesthesia care did not change over the 12 yr. Creation of a nurse sedation team that provided moderate sedation did not alter the number of children receiving care from anesthesia providers but did increase the total number of children receiving hypnotics. Anesthesia was rarely used for scans shorter than 30 min in duration. Increases in scan duration were associated with increased utilization of anesthesia providers for both MRI and CT after stratifying by age. An age of 3–5 yr was associated with the highest rates of anesthesia care.

CONCLUSIONS: Future workload for anesthesia providers administering general anesthesia and/or sedation for pediatric diagnostic imaging will depend on trends in the total number of scans performed. Workload may also be sensitive to factors that increase scan duration or alter the percentage of patients in the 3–5 yr age group. It may additionally depend on reimbursements from insurance companies.

A Comparison of Cervical Spine Motion During Orotracheal Intubation with the Trachlight® or the Flexible Fiberoptic Bronchoscope

Bryan J. Houde, MD*, Stephan R. Williams, MD, PhD*, Alexandre Cadrin-Chênevert, MD{dagger}, François Guilbert, MD, FRCPC{dagger}, and Pierre Drolet, MD, FRCPC{ddagger}

From the Departements of *Anesthesiology, and {dagger}Radiology, Centre hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal, Hôpital Notre-Dame, Montréal, Canada; and {ddagger}Departement of Anesthesiology, Hôpital Maisonneuve-Rosemont, Montréal, Canada.
Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1638-1643.


背景:對於頸椎不穩定患者的氣管插管,纖維支氣管鏡 (FOB) 常被認爲可減少病人的頸椎運動,但對於某些病人可能存在技術上的困難。使用發光引導插管,如Trachlight ® 光索(TL ,也能使頸椎運動達到最低限度,對於頸椎不穩定患者的氣管插管這可能是一個有價值的替代技術。本研究中,作者比較了用TLFOB插管對頸椎運動的影響。

方法 在這一前瞻性、隨機、對照、 非盲 、交叉試驗中,包含了20例頸椎活動正常的在接受應用肌松劑的全身麻醉下行神經放射學的干預的患者。每個病人按次序隨機應用TLFOB進行氣管插管。整個插管過程中由一名助理使頸椎維持線形穩定。用持續的影像學技術來記錄插管過程中枕骨到頸5在矢狀面上的活動情況。頸椎運動的分析方面,記錄分爲四個階段:基線水平插管前制動,置入階段的氣管插管裝置放入; “插管階段(導管通過聲門) ;撤除階段氣管插管的撤離。對於每個插管設備,計算平均頸椎最大活動度並利用標準t檢驗比較。同時比較應用不同插管裝置所需的插管時間。

結果:平均頸椎最大活動度在用TLFOB插管之間無顯著差異(12° ± 6° 11° ± 5°; P = 0.5)。節段性運動主要發生在C0 - 1C1 - 2水平,兩組設備插管過程中觀察到的的患者(18/20)頸椎活動度最大的時刻發生在“插管”階段,而使用TL進行氣管插管所需的時間較短( 34 ± 1760 ± 15sP < 0.001)


(丁俊雲 譯 陳傑 校)

BACKGROUND: Tracheal intubation of an unstable cervical spine (c-spine) patient with the flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope (FOB) is thought to minimize c-spine movement but may be technically difficult in certain patients. Intubation using a luminous stylet, such as the Trachlight® (TL), also produces minimal motion of the c-spine and may be an interesting alternative technique for patients with an unstable c-spine. In this study, we compared the cervical motion caused by the TL and the FOB during intubation.

METHODS: Twenty patients with a normal c-spine undergoing general anesthesia, including neuromuscular blockade, for a neuroradiologic intervention were included in a prospective, randomized, controlled, nonblinded, crossover trial. Each patient was tracheally intubated sequentially with the TL and the FOB in a randomized order. Manual in-line stabilization was applied by an assistant during intubation. The motions produced by intubation from the occiput (C0) to C5 were recorded in the sagittal plane using continuous cinefluoroscopy. For movement analysis, the recordings were divided into four stages: "baseline" before intubation began; "introduction" of the intubation device; "intubation" (passage of the tube through the vocal cords); and "removal" of the device. For each intubating device, the average maximal segmental motion observed in every patient at any stage or cervical segment was calculated and compared using Student’s t-test. The time required to intubate with each device was also compared.

RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the mean maximum segmental motion produced during intubation with the TL versus the FOB (12° ± 6° vs 11° ± 5°; P = 0.5). Segmental movements occurred predominantly at the C0–1 and C1–2 levels, and maximal movements were observed during the introduction stage in 18/20 patients for both devices. Intubation took less time with the TL (34 ± 17 vs 60 ± 15 s, P < 0.001).

CONCLUSION: In patients under general anesthesia with neuromuscular blockade and manual in-line stabilization, we found no difference in the segmental c-spine motion produced during endotracheal intubation using the FOB and the TL.


Fluoroscopically Guided Cervical Interlaminar Epidural Injections Using the Midline Approach: An Analysis of Epidurography Contrast Patterns

Kwang Su Kim, MD*, Sung Sik Shin, MD*, Tae Sam Kim, MD*, Chang Young Jeong, MD{dagger}, Myung Ha Yoon, MD{dagger}, and Jeong Il Choi, MD{dagger}

From the *Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Gwangju Saewoori Spine Hospital, Gwangju, Korea; and {dagger}Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Korea.

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1658-1661. [



方法:所有的硬膜外注射取側臥位,C6 - 7節段間實施。 硬膜外造影使用一定量的碘曲侖 240mg/ml 1 2 3毫升)

結果A組( 1毫升)硬膜外側腔擴散速率爲 56.7 %, B組( 2毫升)90 ,和C組( 3毫升)93.3


(葉樂 譯 陳傑 校)

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate epidurography contrast patterns in fluoroscopically guided cervical interlaminar epidural injections using the midline approach.

METHODS: All epidural injections were performed at the C6-7 level in the prone position. Epidurography was performed using a fixed amount of iotrolan 240 mg I/mL (1, 2, 3 mL).

RESULTS: The rate of ventral epidural spread was 56.7% in Group A (1 mL), 90% in Group B (2 mL), and 93.3% in Group C (3 mL).

CONCLUSIONS: Two milliliters of contrast solution can provide optimal dispersion of contrast in a ventral and longitudinal spread.


The Effect of Peripherally Administered CDP-Choline in an Acute Inflammatory Pain Model: The Role of {alpha}7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor

Mine Sibel Gurun, MD, PhD*, Renee Parker, BS{dagger}, James C. Eisenach, MD, PhD{dagger}, and Michelle Vincler, PhD{dagger}

From the *Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology, Uludag University, Bursa, Turkey; and {dagger}Department of Anesthesiology, Wake Forest University, School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina.

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1680-1687.



方法:雄性Sprague-Dawley大鼠腳掌內注射角叉菜聚糖(100μL2%)來 評估胞二磷膽鹼的抗過敏和抗炎作用。爪機械性撤回閾值和爪的厚度分別由Randall-Selitto測試和千分尺測量。所有注入腳掌內的藥品均爲50 μL



(宋翠俠 譯 陳傑 校)

BACKGROUND: CDP-choline (citicholine; cytidine-5'-diphosphate choline) is an endogenously produced nucleotide which, when injected intracerebroventricularly, exerts an antinociceptive effect in acute pain models mediated by central cholinergic mechanisms and {alpha}7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors ({alpha}7nAChR). Previous reports also suggest that the peripheral cholinergic system has an antiinflammatory role mediated by {alpha}7nAChRs on macrophages.

METHODS: We used male Sprague-Dawley rats to assess the antihypersensitivity and antiinflammatory effect of CDP-choline after intraplantar injection of carrageenan (100 µL, 2%). Mechanical paw withdrawal thresholds and paw thickness were measured by Randall-Selitto testing and microcallipers, respectively. All drugs were administered intraplantarly in a volume 50 µL.

RESULTS: CDP-choline (1, 2.5, 5 µmol; intraplantar) increased the mechanical paw withdrawal threshold and decreased paw edema in a dose- and time-dependent manner in the carrageenan-injected hindpaw. CDP-choline administration to the noninflamed contralateral hindpaw did not alter ipsilateral inflammation. Methyllycaconitine (100 nmol), a selective {alpha}7nAChR antagonist, completely blocked the effects of CDP-choline when administered to the inflamed hindpaw. However, the administration of methyllycaconitine to the contralateral hindpaw did not block the effects of CDP-choline in the ipsilateral paw. The administration of CDP-choline (5 µmol) 10 min after carrageenan administration to the ipsilateral hindpaw did not reduce swelling and edema but did significantly reduce hypersensitivity. Treatment with CDP-choline decreased tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} production in the rat paw tissue after carrageenan.

CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that intraplantar CDP-choline has antihypersensitivity and antiinflammatory effects mediated via {alpha}7nAChRs in the carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain model.


A Lateral Percutaneous Technique for Stellate Ganglion Blockade in Rats

Nebahat Gulcu, MD*, Ersoz Gonca, PhD{dagger}, and Hasan Kocoglu, MD*

From the Departments of *Anesthesiology, and {dagger}Biology, Bolu, Turkey.

Anesth Analg 2009 108: 1701-1704.




方法:21只大鼠隨機分爲三組:後路組(n =7),側路組(n =7)和對照組(n =7)。在實驗中,按照大鼠體重,每100g腹腔注射5mg的硫噴妥鈉鎮靜。後路組, 按照以前描述的方法行後路經皮SGB。在側路組和對照組,以左手的第一和第三指固定頸椎,第二指觸診第七頸椎。研究的藥物:治療組爲0.25%純布比卡因0.2ml,對照組爲0.2ml生理鹽水。 
結果:後路組,在局部麻醉藥注射後,2只動物立即死亡(P < 0.01)。側路組和對照組沒有死亡。在後路組,上瞼下垂出現在300 ± 120 秒,而側路組當注射針頭撤回後, 上瞼下垂幾乎立即出現(6 ± 4)(P <0.001)。對照組未見上瞼下垂。組間心率差異無統計學意義(P >0.069) 
結論:側路法SGB不需要全身麻醉誘導。該方法與早期上瞼下垂有關, 死亡率低於傳統的後路法。

(張燕 譯 陳傑 校) 

BACKGROUND: In the present study, we describe and show the efficacy of a lateral approach to stellate ganglion block (SGB) in rats.

METHODS: Twenty-one rats were randomized into three groups: the posterior technique group (n = 7), the lateral technique group (n = 7), and the control group (n = 7). Thiopental was administered intraperitonally as 5 mg per 100 g of each rat's weight for sedation during the procedure. In the posterior technique group, SGB was performed by a posterior percutaneous approach as described previously. In the lateral technique and control groups, the cervical vertebrae was fixed between the left first and third fingers of the physician's left hand while palpating the C7 process with the second finger. The study drug was 0.2 mL 0.25% plain bupivacaine for the two percutaneous treatment groups, and 0.2 mL saline in the controls.

RESULTS: Two animals in the posterior technique group died immediately after local anesthetic injection (P < 0.01). There were no deaths in the new technique group or in the controls. Ptosis appeared at 300 ± 120 s in the posterior group, whereas it was seen almost immediately after withdrawing the needle in the lateral technique group (6 ± 4 s) (P < 0.001). Ptosis did not occur in the control group. There was no statistically significant difference in heart rate among groups (P > 0.069).

CONCLUSION: The lateral approach to SGB does not require the induction of general anesthesia. The approach is associated with early development of ptosis and may be associated with a lower mortality rate compared to the conventional posterior approach.